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The Character of Consciousness$
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David J. Chalmers

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780195311105

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311105.001.0001

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Consciousness and Its Place in Nature

Consciousness and Its Place in Nature

(p.103) 5 Consciousness and Its Place in Nature
The Character of Consciousness

David J. Chalmers (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

This chapter starts by presenting the central arguments against materialism, which involve establishing an epistemic gap between the physical and the phenomenal, and moves from there to an ontological gap. It then distinguishes between the three most important sorts of materialist opposition to these arguments: type-A materialism (which denies the epistemic gap), type-B materialism (which accepts the epistemic gap but denies the ontological gap), and type-C materialism (which holds that there is a deep epistemic gap but one that will be closed in the limit). It argues that each of these three views should be rejected. The second half of the chapter investigates the most important nonreductive views that result: type-D dualism (or interactionism), type-E dualism (or epiphenomenalism), and type-F monism (Russellian monism, or panprotopsychism). It discusses the pros and cons of each, suggesting that all three have significant attractions and that none has fatal flaws.

Keywords:   materialism, consciousness, dualism, epistemic gap, interactionism

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