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By Parallel ReasoningThe Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments$
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Paul Bartha

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780195325539

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.001.0001

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Philosophical Theories

Philosophical Theories

(p.35) 2 Philosophical Theories
By Parallel Reasoning

Paul F. A. Bartha (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses attempts by Aristotle, Hesse, Mill and others to deal with two problems: (1) finding criteria for evaluating analogical arguments, and (2) providing some form of philosophical justification. As regards the first problem, we can identify a valuable “commonsense” model in Hesse's work, though one that is capable of refinement. As regards the second problem, it is argued that most analyses to date have unsuccessfully cast the analogical argument as an incomplete form of deductive argument, as some type of sampling argument, or as induction by enumeration. Agassi's skeptical rejection of all analogical reasoning is criticized because it too misrepresents the logical structure of the argument form.

Keywords:   Agassi, Aristotle, Hesse, Mill, deductive, sampling, enumerative induction

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