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Neurovascular MedicinePursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging$
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Kenneth Maiese

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195326697

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.001.0001

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Redox Signaling and Vascular Function

Redox Signaling and Vascular Function

Chapter:
(p.473) Chapter 19 Redox Signaling and Vascular Function
Source:
Neurovascular Medicine
Author(s):

J. Will Langston

Magdalena L. Circu

Tak Yee Aw

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0019

Over the last two decades, reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling has emerged as an important regulator of cell function. The growing interest in the link between redox signaling and vascular function stems primarily from evidence that oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction underlies a number of cardiovascular pathologies including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, and that antioxidant intervention may be an important treatment modality in these vascular disorders. Of interest is the thiol antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH), a crucial regulator of cellular redox potential, and whose synthesis is transcriptionally upregulated under conditions of cellular oxidative stress. The transcriptional upregulation of the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis, glutamate cysteine ligase, under oxidative conditions by the transcription factor Nrf2 represents an important area of investigation in terms of its role in redox regulation of endothelial function, its role in vascular pathology, and its potential as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiovascular disorders that involve vascular oxidative stress. This chapter discusses the roles of reactive oxygen species, redox regulation, and cell signaling in the vasculature. Redox activation of transcription factors in vascular disorders is also considered.

Keywords:   glutathione, redox signaling, vascular function, oxidative stress, cell signaling, reduction-oxidation, transcription factors, vascular disorders, vasculature, reactive oxygen species

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