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Neurovascular MedicinePursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging$
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Kenneth Maiese

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195326697

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.001.0001

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Retinal Cellular Metabolism and its Regulation and Control

Retinal Cellular Metabolism and its Regulation and Control

Chapter:
(p.69) Chapter 4 Retinal Cellular Metabolism and its Regulation and Control
Source:
Neurovascular Medicine
Author(s):

Dao-Yi Yu

Stephen J Cringle

Paula K Yu

Er-Ning Su

Xinghuai Sun

Wenyi Guo

William H Morgan

Xiao-Bo Yu

Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0004

The retina is an extension of the brain with a high functional activity and high metabolic rate but with only a limited blood supply. Consequently there is a delicate balance between high metabolic demands and limited nutrient supply. Oxygen is known to be the most supply-limited metabolite in the human retina, and intraretinal hypoxia is thought to be a major pathogenic factor in retinal diseases with a vascular component. These diseases include diabetic retinopathy, vascular occlusion, and glaucoma. The metabolic and functional properties of the retina are highly compartmentalized, and the highly layered structure of the retina provides an opportunity for investigating the properties of different subcellular components not achievable in the brain due to the complex cell architecture. This chapter demonstrates the marked heterogeneity of oxygen metabolism across the retina, even in different components of the same cell, and contrasts the requirements of the inner retina in vascularized and avascular retinas. Oxygen metabolism in animal models of retinal diseases is also examined, along with the control and regulation of ocular vasculature.

Keywords:   metabolism, retina, oxygen, hypoxia, retinal diseases, diabetic retinopathy, animal models, ocular vasculature

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