Although the word navakammika appeared only once in the Pāli Nikāyas to refer to Brahmin Bhāradvāja who has work done by others instead of a Buddhist, the word has occurred several times in Sanskrit and Pali Buddhist literature and in certain Indian Buddhist writings. In some texts, kārāpeti and chindāpetvā, causatives, are the principal verbs used to describe what the navakammika does. In most contexts, the term navakammika is usually associated with a supervisor than a laborer. In other instances in the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, the word navakarmika is used to portray someone, usually monks, who is responsible for activities that require raw materials like wood, and other such construction-related activities. This chapter looks into the inscriptional references to the terms navakammika and navakarmika and how these terms were used across different texts and cultures.
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