This chapter focuses on instrument design, with detailed discussion on anticipating the social relevance of varying options in construct conceptualization for scales and tests. Considering how to measure, and for whom, fundamental design issues include composition of a team who, by their roles and/or skills, can contribute meaningfully to the draft form of an instrument. When deciding the structure and format of the measure, developers must address respondent age, instrument readability, and language considerations, and anticipate scale length and the resulting burden on both respondents and administrators. Guidelines for determining scale length are proposed, along with strategies for creation of scale items, use of focus groups and expert panels, selection of response options, and consideration of alternatives for scale score computation and interpretation. Considerations in writing “reversed” items are summarized, along with strategies for recognizing and minimizing potential reactivity.
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