The Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs, emanate from the Millennium Declaration, a resolution adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations at the close of the Millennium Summit held from September 6–8, 2000. The MDGs express a set of goals and targets (some more measurable than others) to reduce human misery and preserve the environment for a sustainable future. Additional targets were added after 2000. The goals and the Millennium Declaration state the need for partnership among all countries, regardless of their economic status. In general, however, Goals 1 through 7 relate to the situation in developing countries, while Goal 8 identifies the agenda for a fairer world system of trade and resource allocation. The MDGs have been published in many formats; the following was taken from the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals website.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 per day.
Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people.
Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education.
Target 2.A: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women.
Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality.
Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health.
Target 5.A: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.
Target 5.B: Achieve universal access to reproductive health.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases.
Target 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begin to reserve the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Target 6.B Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reserve the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.
Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reserve the loss of environmental resources.
Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.
Target 7.C: Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Target 7.D: Have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.
Target 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system (includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally).
Target 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed countries (includes tariff and quota-free access for exports, enhanced program of debt relief for and cancellation of official bilateral debt, and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction).
Target 8.C: Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states
Target 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.
Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.
Source: Millennium Development Goals. (2010, October 26). Retrieved from www.un.org/millenniumgoals/.