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Photoperiodism – The Biological Calendar - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Randy J. Nelson, David L. Denlinger, and David E. Somers


Life evolves in a cyclic environment, and to be successful, organisms must adapt not only to their spatial habitat, but also to their temporal habitat. How do plants and animals determine the time of year so they can anticipate seasonal changes in their habitats? In most cases, day length or photoperiod acts as the principal external cue for determining seasonal activity. For organisms not living at the bottom of the ocean or deep in a cave, day follows night, and the length of the day changes predictably throughout the year. These changes in photoperiod provide the most accurate signal for pr ... More

Keywords: photoperiodism, cyclic environment, organisms, habitat, plants, animals, seasonal changes, day length, photoperiod, seasonal activity

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2009 Print ISBN-13: 9780195335903
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Randy J. Nelson, editor
Ohio State University

David L. Denlinger, editor
Ohio State University

David E. Somers, editor
Ohio State University

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Part I Photoperiodism in Plants and Fungi


David E. Somers

1 Photoperiodic Flowering in the Long-Day Plant Arabidopsis thaliana

Joanna Putterill, Christine Stockum, and Guy Warman

4 Photoperiodic Control of Flowering in Lemna

Kumiko Ito-Miwa, and Tokitaka Oyama

5 Photoperiodic Control of Dormancy and Flowering in Trees

Pekka Heino, Ove Nilsson, and Tapio Palva

7 Seasonality and Photoperiodism in Fungi

Till Roenneberg, Tanja Radic, Manfred Gödel, and Martha Merrow

Part II Photoperiodism in Invertebrates


David L. Denlinger

8 Photoperiodism in Mollusks

Hideharu Numata, and Hiroko Udaka

9 Photoperiodism in Copepods

Nancy H. Marcus, and Lindsay P. Scheef

12 Photoperiodism in Insects: Molecular Basis and Consequences of Diapause

Karen D. Williams, Paul S. Schmidt, and Marla B. Sokolowski

Part III Photoperiodism in Vertebrates


Randy J. Nelson

16 Photoperiodism in Amphibians and Reptiles

Zachary M. Weil, and David Crews

18 Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms of Avian Photoperiodism

Takashi Yoshimura, and Peter J. Sharp

19 Photoperiodism in Mammals: Regulation of Nonreproductive Traits

Gregory E. Demas, Zachary M. Weil, and Randy J. Nelson

20 Photoperiodism and Reproduction in Mammals

Lance J. Kriegsfeld, and Eric L. Bittman

Epilogue: Future Directions

David L. Denlinger, David E. Somers, and Randy J. Nelson

End Matter