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American Geography and GeographersToward Geographical Science$
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Geoffrey J. Martin

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780195336023

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336023.001.0001

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Geography and the American Normal School

Geography and the American Normal School

(p.62) 2 Geography and the American Normal School
American Geography and Geographers

Geoffrey Martin

Oxford University Press

Geography and the normal school share an intriguing history in the United States. Some who became outstanding geographers taught in these schools, and a number of students who studied in them became internationally recognized geographers. Initially established in Europe and transported to the United States in the 1830s, by the end of the century, moving from the east to the west coasts, normal schools had increased substantially in number, each bringing recognition to the town in which it was seated. Typically two years of rigorous education were offered at very modest cost. Later, the normal schools were enlarged in function and plant, then were retitled normal colleges, and later still, state colleges and state universities. The term “normal school” was borrowed from French école normale, ultimately from Latin normalis “right-angled,” in later Latin also “conforming to a rule.”

Keywords:   normal, Heimatkunde, journal, female, physiography

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