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Prohibiting Plunder – How Norms Change - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Wayne Sandholtz


For much of history, the rules of war decreed that “to the victor go the spoils”. The winners in warfare routinely seized for themselves the artistic and cultural treasures of the defeated; plunder constituted a marker of triumph. By the 20th century, international norms declared the opposite, that cultural monuments should be shielded from destruction or seizure. Prohibiting Plunder traces and explains the emergence of international rules against wartime looting of cultural treasures, and explores how anti-plunder norms have developed over the past 200 years. The book covers highly topical ev ... More

Keywords: plunder, international norms, wartime looting, anti-plunder norms, Iraqi National Museum, Holocaust Art, treaty-based rules

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2007 Print ISBN-13: 9780195337235
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2009 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Wayne Sandholtz, author
University of California, Irvine
Author Webpage