Neuromodulatory substances evoke beta2 oscillations in motor and secondary somatosensory cortex, that depend on gap junctions. In the latter case, the oscillations are only weakly dependent on synaptic transmission. Beta2 is most prominent in intrinsically bursting layer 5 pyramidal cells (some of which are expected to contribute to the pyramidal tract, at least in primates). The oscillation is an emergent phenomenon, in that individual neurons are not oscillators at beta2 frequency. The period is determined in part by the “M” type of K+ current. Oscillations in deep and superficial cortical layers interact with one another. Gap junctions mediating beta2 are probably located on axons.
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