networks of neurons can generate collective behavior by either of two different means, which can operate alone or in cooperation. Firstly, there is the well-known classical means of chemical synaptic interactions, with orthodromic spikes arising because of integration of synaptic inputs. During such activities, there are opportunities for synaptic plasticity in pyramidal cells, due to back-propagating somatic action potentials. Secondly, collective activity can arise in network of axons, whereby antidromic spikes occur that do not result from integrated activity, or in which full somatic spikes do not occur at all. In the latter case, back-propagated spiking does not occur, and the rules for synaptic plasticity are likely to be different than in the classical case.
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