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The Law of American State Constitutions$

Robert F. Williams

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195343083

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195343083.001.0001

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(p.417) INDEX

(p.417) INDEX

Source:
The Law of American State Constitutions
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
abortion funding, 215–16
Abrahamson, Shirley S.
on criminal law, 125–26
on lockstepping, 193, 195
on state courts ignoring state constitutions, 131
on state vs. federal constitutions and decisions, 172–73, 182
ACIR (Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations), 1–2, 126
Adams, John, 2, 37, 50–53, 60
Adams, Willi Paul, 58–59
adequate and independent state ground doctrine, 122–25, 229, 230–31
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), 1–2, 126
African Americans, as delegates to state constitutional conventions, 34, 91
Alabama
constitutional commissions in, 387
the gubernatorial veto in, 309
limited constitutional conventions in, 395
Alabama Constitution
length of, 28
race discrimination and, 100
revision of the, 373, 402–3
Alabama Constitutional Convention (1901), 100
Alaska
automatic convention call in, 388
constitutional conventions in, 393
equality doctrine, 221
Alaska Supreme Court
on constitutional amendment or revision, 403, 404
on popular sovereignty provision, 318
Alexander, Chief Judge, 167
Allen, Thomas, 59
Althouse, Ann, 124, 231
amendment and revision of state constitutions
automatic convention calls, 388
evaluation of constitutions for obsolescence, 359–64
Jefferson on, 73–74
judicial involvement in, 401–2, 408–9
amendment v. revision, 403–5
procedural limits, 402–3
single subject and separate vote requirements, 405–8
limited constitutional conventions, 392–97
overview, 397–99
popular sovereignty or vote and, 26–27, 29, 95–96, 128, 379–81
process, 87–88
rate of, 359
statistics regarding, 95
to overturn state court decisions, 29, 128
twentieth century revision, 364, 377–79
Alabama (1994–present), 373
California (1993–1996), 374
Florida (1967, 1977, 1997), 369–71
Georgia (1983), 368–69
Illinois (1968–1970), 375–76
Louisiana (1973), 365–66
Maryland (1966–1968), 376
Michigan (1961–1962), 368
Montana (1967–1972), 367–68
New Jersey (1947), 364–65
New York (1967, 1997), 371–73
Texas (1971–1975), 373–74
Virginia (1968–1970), 366
twenty-first century
constitutional commissions, 381–87
constitutional conventions, 387–88
initiatives for constitutional change, 388–92
limited constitutional conventions, 392–97
opportunities for revision, 379–81
American Commonwealth, The (Bryce), 93
(p.418) American Constitution, 2
American Political Science Review, 122
Anderson, James A., 149
Anderson, People v., 116, 119, 127
Anti-Federalists, 42, 45
Arizona
contributory negligence provision, 105
enabling act, 107–8
newspaper coverage of constitutional conventions in, 326–27
statehood, 79–80, 85
Arkansas, preempting constitutional provisions, 104–5
Arkansas Supreme Court
on delegation of legislative power, 257
on due process, 191
lockstepping approach used by, 204–5
Armatta v. Kitzhaber, 406
Articles of Confederation, 65, 66, 77
Baker v. Carr, 97
Ball, State v., 141
Bartlett, Josiah, 44–45
Beard, Charles A., 87
Bebout, John, 325
Becker, Carl, 40–41
Bellacosa, Joseph, 180
Bender, People v., 184
Benjamin, Gerald, 373, 388, 389
Berkshire Constitutionalists, 59–60
Beveridge, Albert J., 79–80
Biber, Eric, 80, 91
bicameralism, 51
Bilionis, Louis D., 18, 175
Bill of Rights, 113, 135, 336
Bird, Rose, 290
Blaine Amendment, 109–10, 370n71, 408
Blaine, James G., 109
Boland, State v., 165–68
Boughey, Lynn M., 316
Braden, George, 268–69
Brandeis, Louis, 8, 350–51
Brennan, William J., Jr., 113, 121–22, 135, 196
Brest, Paul, 276
Bridges, Amy, 97
briefing requirement, 156, 161–62
Bryce, Lord, 93
Buchanan, James, 89
Burger Court, 115
Burnet v. Coronado Oil & Gas Company, 350
Busbee, George D., 379
Bush v. Gore, 19
Bush v. Holmes, 332
business regulations, 102
Cain, Bruce, 374
California
busing, 219
constitutional commissions in, 374
death penalty in, 119
drug testing in, 102
free speech rights in, 120
judicial autonomy in, 129
judicial power in, 294–95
labor policy, 102
legislative authority in, 96
local referendum requirement for low-cost housing, 215
prayer in schools, 183
same-sex marriage in, 6, 220, 401, 402
school busing requirements, 128–29
school finance litigation in, 120
supermajority voting requirements in, 279
California Constitution
on constitutional interpretation, 352
race discrimination and, 100
revision of the, 374
women’s rights proposals for, 34
California Constitution (1849), 86
California Constitution (1879), 102
California Proposition 8, 6, 132, 401
California Proposition 13, 279, 404
California Proposition 115, 403
California Supreme Court
on amendment v. revision of the constitution, 403
on constitutional procedural requirements, 405–6, 407
on the death penalty, 119
disputed methodology questions and the, 178, 183
on the enrolled bill rule, 275–76
on equal protection, 219–20
on the harmless error rule, 186
(p.419)
judicial elections for the, 290
on judicial power, 295
on same-sex marriage, 283
on self-executing provisions, 344
on separation of powers, 239
on state action doctrine and free speech, 189–90
California v. Greenwood, 163–69, 170–71
Callow, Keith, 151
Calvinists, 60
capital punishment See death penalty
Cappy, Ralph, 145
Cardozo, Benjamin, 122
Carson v. Maurer, 220
Cavanagh, Michael, 183
checks and balances, 70, 71, 83, 237
Citizens Council Against Crime v. Bjork, 269
civil jury guarantee, 151, 353
Civil War, 85, 90
Clark, William, 157
clergy and state constitutions, 60
Clifford, Robert L., 138, 163–64
Clinton, George, 56
Coe, State v., 149
Cogan, Neil H., 5
Colorado
on delegation of legislative power, 256
discrimination against lesbians and gay men, 100
enabling act, 108
garbage searches in, 168–69
statehood, 81
Colorado Supreme Court
on interpreting a constitutional provision, 316
on judicial power, 291–92
on special and local laws, 278–79
Common Sense (Paine), 47–48, 50–51, 60
Commonwealth v. See Name of opposing party
comparative constitutional law, 16–17
Conference of Chief Justices, 126
Congress (U.S.) See U.S. Congress
Connecticut
automatic convention call in, 388, 392
burden of state constitutional challenge in, 341–42
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88
garbage searches in, 168–69
newspaper coverage of constitutional conventions in, 326–27
search and seizure in, 161–62
Connecticut Constitutional Convention (1818), 250
Connecticut Supreme Court, 134
adopting federal constitutional tests, 206
criteria analysis, 160–63, 168–69, 177
on same-sex marriage, 283
constitutional conventions (state)
automatic vote to call a, 74, 372–73, 377, 388
historical materials used for constitutional interpretation, 318–30
limited, 392–97
nature of issues before, 398–99
newspaper coverage of, 325–28
requirements for a, 387–88
See also Specific state constitutional conventions
constitutional conventions (U.S.), 393
Constitutional Convention (U.S. 1787)
delegates to, 38, 67
state constitutions influence on, 44–45, 66–70
white-male make-up of, 34
Constitutionalist Party, 64
Consumer Party of Pennsylvania v. Commonwealth, 266
Cooley, Thomas, 10–11
Cooper v. California, 186
Coyle v. Smith, 106–7, 108, 109
criminal procedure law, 120, 124–26, 127, 139–40
criteria approach
briefing requirement, 156, 161–62
case study, 163–69
Colorado, 168–69
Connecticut, 160–63, 168–69, 177
critique of the, 169–77
death penalty, 154–55
double jeopardy, 153
due process, 153
exclusionary rule, 160
face-to-face confrontation clause, 158
garbage searches, 163–69, 171, 172–73
(p.420)
Idaho, 168–69
Illinois, 150, 157–60, 162
Indiana, 168–69
jury guarantee (civil), 151
Kentucky, 150
Maryland, 147
Massachusetts, 150
Michigan, 150
New Jersey, 146, 147, 148, 154–55, 169
North Dakota, 168–69
Pennsylvania, 146, 155–57, 162
right of petition, 153
same-sex marriage, 162
search and seizure, 147, 149, 155, 157–58, 161–62, 165–68
Vermont, 169
Washington, 146, 148–50, 151–54, 162, 169
cruel or unusual punishment, 116, 183
Dealey, James, 82
Dean, John, 263
death penalty, 119, 128, 154–55
Delaware Constitution Amendment Process, 26–27
Delaware Supreme Court on advisory opinions, 297
Democracy, Liberty, and Property: The State Constitutional Conventions of the 1820’s (Peterson), 326
Depression of the 1870s, 85
Developments in the Law: The Interpretation of State Constitutional Rights (HLR), 126
Developments in State Constitutional Law: The Williamsburg Conference, 126
Dickinson, John, 57
Dillon v. King, 270
Dinan, John J., 25n47, 30–31, 82–83, 319
Dodd, Walter F., 250, 253–54, 313
Dodge v. Woolsey, 99
Doggett, Lloyd, 182
Dolliver, James, 166
Dorr Rebellion (1841–1842), 89
double jeopardy, 153
Douglas, Elisha, 46, 52, 54–55
Douglas, Stephen A., 89
drug testing of police officers, 184
dual constitutionalism, 2, 393
dual sovereignty approach, 143–44
due process claims, 153, 190–92
Due Process Clause, 336
Durham, Christine, 177
D & W Auto Supply v. Department of Revenue, 273–74
Eastwood Mall, Inc. v. Slanco, 200–201, 228
economic regulation and substantive due process, 190–92
Edmunds, Commonwealth v., 146, 155–57
Elazar, Daniel, 30
election law
presidential, 70
senators and representatives, 19
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 104
Emerging Issues in State Constitutional Law (NAAG), 126
enabling acts, 78n28, 79, 81, 106–10
“equal footing” doctrine, 80, 106, 108
Equal Protection Clause, 99–100, 208–9, 215–17, 220–24, 336
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 100–101, 216–17
Establishment Clause, 200
Esteybar v. Municipal Court, 294–95
exclusionary rule, 160
executive branch (state)
appointment of Executive Officers, 242–45
constitutional agencies and officers, 309–10
election of officials, 31
executive orders, 304–5
foreign relations, 306
gubernatorial veto power, 43, 57, 63, 68, 261–62, 276–77, 306–9
higher education governance, 310
interpretation of state constitutional provisions, 349
item veto, 307–9
nature of the, 303–6
plural executive, 303–4
(p.421)
power of the, 8, 43, 64, 304–6
Revolutionary period, 236, 248, 303
separation of powers, 62, 235–42, 303
veto of procedurally invalid acts, 276–77
extra-legal constitutional conventions, 88–89
face-to-face confrontation clause (Illinois), 158
factor approach See criteria approach
Fair Labor Standards Act, 103
federal constitution See U.S. Constitution
Federalist, The, 38, 68n172
Fehrenbacher, Don, 82
Feldman, Stanley G., 292
Fink v. Cole, 256
First Amendment, 187, 189–90, 201
Fisher, William, 328–29
Florida
constitutional commissions in, 369–71, 382–83
Equal Rights Amendment ratification litigation, 100–101
school voucher program, 332
Florida Constitution
easiest in the country to change, 390
journal entry rule in, 272–73
pregnant pigs amendment, 390
revision of the, 369–71, 390
search and seizure clause, 128
on separation of powers, 237, 255
Florida Game and Fish Commission, 309
Florida Supreme Court
on constitutional agencies’ rules, 309
on constitutional amendment v. revision, 404–5
on constitutional procedural requirements, 407
on delegation of legislative power, 255, 256
on judicial power, 292, 295
on legislative constitutional interpretation, 347–48
on notice requirements for local laws, 215
on proposed amendment validity, 390
on substantive due process and economic regulation, 191
Florida Taxation and Budget Reform Commission, 370n71, 408
Foner, Eric, 90
Forbes v. Seattle, 152
Four Letters on Interesting Subjects (Paine), 40
Fourteenth Amendment, 113, 208–9, 213
Fourth Amendment, 163–69, 186, 187–88, 202–3
Frankfurter, Felix, 38
free press, 49
free speech, 49, 187, 189–90, 200–201
Free Speech Clause, 336
Friedelbaum, Stanley H., 126
Friedman, Lawrence, 94, 132, 241
Friesen, Jennifer, 125
Fritz, Christian G., 22, 86, 380
Full Faith and Credit Clause, 19
gag rule, 182
Gais, Thomas, 388, 389
Galie, Peter, 383
garbage searches, 141, 163–69, 171, 172–73
Gardner, James A., 4, 11, 18, 23, 198–99, 227
Garibaldi, Marie, 165, 166
Geisler, State v., 160–61
Georgia
constitutional commissions in, 368–69, 386
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88
number of constitutions in, 28
Yazoo land scandal, 258
Georgia Constitution
on judicial review, 288–89
length of, 28
Pennsylvania’s constitution and, 61–62
revision of the, 368–69
Geraldo, State v., 202
Gilded Age, 97
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 123
Gocken, State v., 153
Gomez, State v., 142–43
Gottlieb, Stephen, 328
Grad, Frank P., 24, 258–59, 331, 360, 398
Granger movement, 34–35
(p.422) great ordinances, 336–37
Greenwood, California v., 163–69, 170–71
Greenwood Press, 126
Griffin, Stephen M., 22–23
Grodin, Joseph, 172
Guarantee Clause, 18–19, 101, 390
Gunwall, State v., 145, 146, 148–49
as precedent, 151, 152, 153–54, 166, 167–68
Gunwall-type factors as guides, 171
Guy, Richard, 167–68
Gwinnett, Button, 61–62
Hamilton, Alexander, 38
Hammons, Christopher W., 21, 363–64
Handler, Alan B., 144–45, 147, 154, 189
harmless error rule, 186
Harris v. McRae, 215
Hawaii
automatic convention call in, 373n91, 388, 392
statehood, 81
Hawaii Supreme Court
on the burden of a state constitutional challenge, 341
on constitutional procedural requirements, 407–8
Hayes, Thomas L., 145
Hecht, Nathan, 182
Heiple, James, 158
Hempele, State v., 163–65, 166, 168
Henretta, James, 88, 89, 93
Herron v. Southern Pacific Company, 105
Hershkoff, Helen, 116–17, 354
Hicks, John, 97
higher education governance, 310
Hispanics as delegates to state constitutional conventions, 35
historical-movement model, 29–30
Hoffer, Peter, 37n2
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 99, 240, 336
Holmes, Stephen, 363
Holt, Wythe, 92
horizontal federalism, 352
Howard, A.E. Dick, 190–91, 366, 394
Hull, Natalie, 37n2
Hulsebosch, Daniel J., 74
Hunt, State v. (1982)
as precedent, 151, 154–55, 163, 165
as teaching opinion, 145, 146
dissent, 168
divergence from the U.S. Supreme Court, 147
Hunt, State v. (1989), 154
Hurricane Katrina, 7
Hurst, James Willard, 88, 359
Idaho
constitutional commissions in, 387
criteria approach, 168–69
equality doctrine, 221
garbage searches in, 168–69
Idaho Supreme Court
on constitutional interpretation, 333
on the negative implication issue, 332–33
Illinois
automatic convention call in, 388, 392
constitutional commissions in, 375
criteria approach, 150, 157–60, 162
executive clemency for death penalty in, 305
the gubernatorial veto in, 309
initiative process restrictions in, 405
legislative authority in, 96
search and seizure in, 157–58
Illinois Central R.R. Co. v. Stewart, 346
Illinois Constitution
equal protection and special laws, 214
judicial compensation and the, 285
revision of the, 375–76
Illinois Constitutional Convention (1870), 35, 102
Illinois Supreme Court
adopting federal constitutional tests, 206n94
and the criteria approach, 150, 157–60, 162
on constitutional interpretation, 322–23
constitutional interpretation and convention debates, 320
on delegation of legislative power to the people, 257
enforcement of initiative process restrictions, 405
on equal protection and special laws, 214
on governor’s blanket clemency for death penalty inmates, 305
(p.423)
on legislative power, 249–50
lockstepping approach used by, 205
impeachment in state constitutions, 37n2
Independent Community Bankers Association of South Dakota, Inc. v. State, 271
Indiana
criteria approach, 168–69
due process, 209
equality doctrine, 212, 221
garbage searches in, 168–69
special and local laws, 278
Indiana Supreme Court
retroactivity rules, 186
use of U.S. Supreme Court methodology, 209
initiative method of amending constitutions, 388–92, 403–5
international law and state constitutions, 355
interstitial approach, 142–43
Iowa Supreme Court
on federal and state equal protection, 223n194
on gubernatorial veto power, 308
on popular sovereignty provision, 318
on same-sex marriage, 6, 283
Ives v. South Buffalo Railway Company, 350, 351
Jacksonian democracy, 79, 85–86, 290
Jameson, John A., 382, 404
James v. Valtierra, 215
Jasper v. Mease Manor, Inc., 348
Jay, John, 56
Jeffersonian democracy, state constitutions and, 85
Jefferson, Thomas, 73–74, 363
Jenson, Merrill, 54
Jewett, State v., 145, 152, 169
Johnson, Samuel, 54
Jones, Robert, 139
judicial branch (federal), 298, 299, 300
judicial branch (state)
advisory opinions by supreme courts, 296–98
as policy makers, 283–85
constitutional amendment and revisions and the, 401–2
amendment v. revision, 403–5
procedural limits, 402–3
single subject and separate vote requirements, 405–8
enforcement of legislative procedure provisions by, 267–77
inherent powers of the courts, 293–96
judicial review, 288–90
judicial selection, 290
position and function of the, 298–301
power of the, 8, 64, 285–88
regulation of the practice of law, 292–93
rules of practice and procedure, 291–92
Judiciary Act (1789), 113
Junkins v. Branstad, 348
jury guarantee, civil, 151
Kahn, Paul, 10, 131, 175–76
Kansas
Lecompton Constitution, 89
limited constitutional conventions in, 393
statehood, 89
Katrina, Hurricane, 7
Katz, Daniel M., 391
Kaufman, State v., 272–73
Kaye, Judith, 16, 180–81, 182
Keller, Morton, 96
Kelo v. City of New London, 6
Kent, James, 83
Kentucky
constitutional commissions in, 386
critera approach, 150
separatism in, 76
statehood and national issue of slavery, 82
Kentucky Supreme Court
on constitutional interpretation, 337–38, 345–46
on the extrinsic evidence rule, 273–74
on limited constitutional conventions, 395
Keta, People v., 180
Kilgore v. Magee, 263–64
Kincaid, John, 115, 126, 134
Krislov, Marvin, 391
Kroger Company v. O’Hara Township, 223
Krueger, People v., 160
(p.424) Labor Management and Relations Act, 102
land grant authority, 108–9
Langdon, John, 44–45
Latzer, Barry, 124, 139, 196–97, 198, 230
Laudenberger v. Port Authority of Allegheny County, 222
Lecompton Constitution, 89
legislative branch (federal) See U.S. Congress
legislative branch (state)
authority of, 96
direct legislation and the, 280–81
dual office holding, 242–45
judicial enforcement of legislative procedure provision, 267–77
legislative power, 247–53
legislative power limits, 253–57
limitations on special and local laws, 277–79
popular distrust of, 248–49
procedural restrictions enforcement by judicial branch, 267–77
procedural restrictions on, 257–67
retroactive statutes, 280
separation of powers, 62–65, 69–71, 284–85
supermajority voting requirements, 279
unicameral legislature, 44, 48, 57
U.S. Constitution amendments ratification by, 252
vs. U.S. Congress, 69, 249–50
legislative reapportionment, 83, 252
Lehman, Irving, 324
Lemisch, Jesse, 45
Levinson, L. Harold, 313, 320–21, 323
Levinson, Sanford, 31, 122
Linde, Hans A., 16–17, 122, 130, 132, 135, 137
on balancing in constitutional interpretation, 170
on equal protection, 212–13
on initiated amendments to constitutions, 390
on lockstepping, 196
on the primacy approach, 140–41
on the role of state judiciary, 300–301
on veto of procedurally invalid acts, 276
Livingston, Robert R., 55–56
local government and laws
limitations on local laws, 277–79
notice provisions for local laws, 215
referenda on low-cost housing, 215
separation of powers and, 241
Lochner v. New York, 190, 191–92
lockstepping, 158, 193
adopting established U.S. Supreme Court tests, 205–7
critique of prospective lockstepping, 224
equality doctrine, 209–11, 216–24
overview, 193–96
prospective, 200–205, 208–9, 224–29, 230
reflective adoption, 197–200, 229–31
state constitutional equality provisions, 211–16
interpretation of, 216–24
unreflective adoptionism, 196–97
Louisiana, statehood, 80
Louisiana Constitution
number of constitutions, 28
revision of the, 365–66
Louisiana Supreme Court, on gubernatorial veto power, 308
Louisville & Nashville R.R. v. Kelly’s Administratrix, 346
Love v. Borough of Stroudsburg, 221
Lucas, Malcomb, 183
Lynd, Staughton, 55
Madison, James
identified as “Father of the Constitution,” 2
on separation of powers, 235, 284
on state constitutions, 38, 66, 67, 68, 363
Maine constitution and stare decisis, 351
Main, Jackson Turner, 39, 64–65, 236
majoritarian protections, 33–34, 191–92
Maltz, Earl, 225, 226
Marbury v. Madison, 289
Marshall-Wythe School of Law of the College of William and Mary, 126
Maryland
constitutional convention in, 376
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88
(p.425)
newspaper coverage of constitutional conventions in, 326–27
Maryland Constitution, revision of the, 376
Maryland Constitution (1776), 57–58
Maryland Court of Appeals
on adoption of the ERA, 216
on constitutional interpretation, 340, 355
lockstepping by, 139n21, 197
Mason, George, 68, 211
Massachusetts
drug testing of police officers, 184
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88
the gubernatorial veto in, 309
Massachusetts Constitution (1780), 44, 58–60, 285
on advisory opinions, 297
Massachusetts Constitutional Convention (1820–1821), 83, 326
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
disputed methodology questions, 150, 178, 184–85
on same-sex marriage, 6, 283
May, Janice, 374, 386
Mazzone, Jason, 113
McCabe, Niel, 173
McCauley, People v., 158–59
McConnell, Michael, 91
Medicaid abortion coverage, 215–16
Michigan
automatic convention call in, 388
criteria approach, 150, 183–84
cruel or unusual punishment clause, 183
equal protection provision, 208–9
supermajority voting requirements in, 279
Michigan Constitution
on prohibition of judicial review, 290
revision of the, 368
Michigan Supreme Court
on delegation of legislative power, 256
disputed methodology questions, 178, 183, 184
on interpreting a constitutional provision, 315
lockstepping approach used by, 205, 208–9
on open meetings statutes applying to courts, 293–94
Michigan v. Long, 123, 124, 145
Miller, Ben, 158, 159–60, 160
Miller, State v., 161–62
Minnesota, equality doctrine, 221
Minnesota Constitutional Convention (1857), 95
Mississippi, constitutional commissions in, 383
Missouri Supreme Court, on constitutional interpretation, 333
Mitchell, People v., 158–59
Montana
automatic convention call in, 388
constitutional commissions in, 367
constitutional conventions in, 393
the gubernatorial veto in, 309
Montana Constitution, revision of the, 367–68
Montana Constitution (1889), 94
Montana Supreme Court
on constitutional interpretation, 322, 354
lockstepping approach used by, 204
Morawetz, Thomas, 176–77
Morris, Gouverneur, 67–68
Mosk, Stanley, 183
Munn v. Illinois, 102
NAFTA, 106
National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG), 126
National Center for State Courts, 126
Native Americans and Oklahoma Constitution of 1908, 95
Nebraska Supreme Court
on constitutional interpretation, 353
on legislative power to bind future legislatures, 254
Neuborne, Burt, 116
Nevada statehood, 89–90
Nevada Supreme Court, on conflicting provisions, 339
New Hampshire, 60
automatic convention call in, 388
primacy approach in, 141
Vermont statehood and, 76
(p.426) New Hampshire Supreme Court, 141
on constitutional interpretation, 323
on delegation of legislative power to the people, 257
on equality guarantees and medical malpractice claims, 220
New Jersey
constitutional commissions in, 381, 384–85
constitutional conventions in, 325, 327, 364–65, 392, 393, 396
criteria approach, 146, 147, 148, 154–55
limited constitutional conventions in, 392, 396
search and seizure in, 155
New Jersey Constitution
expectation of privacy in, 164
the gubernatorial veto in, 309
on prohibition of judicial review, 290
ratification process, 26
revision of the, 364–65, 381
school finance litigation in, 120
New Jersey Constitution (1776), on legislative power, 284
New Jersey Constitution (1844), 325
New Jersey Constitutional Convention (1947), 286, 364–65, 396
New Jersey Constitutional Convention (1966), 392
New Jersey Council on Local Mandates, 290
New Jersey Supreme Court
as policy maker, 286
criteria analysis, 154–55, 162, 163–65, 171
on delegation of legislative power, 256
on equality in education, 218
on garbage searches, 163–65, 171
on governor’s power, 239
on interpreting a constitutional provision, 315
on judicial power, 291, 295–96
on the regulation of the practice of law, 293
on separation of powers, 243
on state action doctrine and free speech, 189
teaching opinions of the, 144–45
New Judicial Federalism
about, 7, 113–15
backlash against, 127–30
criminal procedure law and, 120, 124–26, 127, 139–40
dialogue regarding, 131–33
difficult nature of, 130–31
direct right of action for money damages, 187–88
due process and economic regulation and, 190–92
early rise of, 119–24
harmless error rules and, 186
retroactivity of state rulings and, 186
scholarship regarding, 126–27
state action doctrine and, 188–90
waiver of rights and, 187
New Mexico
land grants, 109
statehood, 79, 80
New Mexico Constitutional Convention, 35
New Mexico Supreme Court
on the enrolled bill rule, 270
on gubernatorial veto power, 308
interstitial approach used by, 142–43
newspaper coverage of constitutional conventions, 325–28
New York
automatic convention call in, 388, 392
constitutional commissions in, 372, 383–85
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88
judicial funding in, 294
post-Revolution period, 74
Vermont statehood and, 76
New York Constitution, revision of the, 371–73
New York Constitution (1777)
adoption of, 44
compromise in drafting the, 55–57
Rent Wars and the, 34, 84–85
vs. the Pennsylvania Constitution, 55–56
vs. the U.S. Constitution, 16
New York Constitution (1846), 85
New York Constitutional Commission (1872), 383–84
(p.427) New York Constitutional Convention (1776–1777), 41, 55
New York Constitutional Convention (1821), 83
New York Constitutional Convention (1846), 34, 41
New York Constitutional Convention (1894), 324
New York Court of Appeals
on constitutional interpretation, 323–24
disputed methodology questions, 178–82
on executive branch powers, 304–5
right to damages for constitutional violations, 187–88
on the veto process, 306–7
on withholding passed bills, 307
Ninth Amendment, 118
Nixon, Richard, 115
Nolan, Joseph, 184–85
North Carolina
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88
federally established grant conditions and, 103–4
limited constitutional conventions in, 393
North Carolina Constitution (1776), 32, 53–54
North Carolina Supreme Court on right to damages for constitutional violations, 187
North Dakota
criteria approach, 168–69
garbage searches in, 168–69
North Dakota Constitution, on judicial review, 289
North Dakota Constitutional Convention (1889), 94
North Dakota Supreme Court
on constitutional agencies’ rules, 310
on constitutional interpretation, 335, 346, 347
Northwest Ordinance of 1787, 77
O’Connor, Sandra Day, 123, 124
O’Hern, Daniel, 165
Ohio automatic convention call, 388
Ohio Constitution
on executive power, 78n30
on retroactive statutes, 280
Ohio Supreme Court
on certified questions, 298
on free speech, 200–201
lockstepping approach used by, 197, 200, 200–201, 201–3
on search and seizure, 201–3
Oklahoma
constitutional commissions in, 383
enabling act, 106–7
Oklahoma Constitution (1908), 87, 95
one-person-one-vote, 97
Onuf, Peter S., 76
Oregon
equality provision, 212–13
judicial autonomy in, 129
newspaper coverage of constitutional conventions in, 326–27
optional federal benefits and, 104
statehood, 89
Oregon Constitution (1859), 212–13
Oregon Constitution, Swiss model for the, 86
Oregon Supreme Court, 140–41
on adopting federal constitutional doctrine, 224n197
on the burden of a state constitutional challenge, 342–43
on constitutional amendment procedural requirements, 405
on international law and constitutional interpretation, 355
right to damages for constitutional violations, 187
Paine, Thomas
on the 1776 Pennsylvania Constitution, 50
enthusiasm of, 52–53
image of government, 47–48
influence of, 52, 56, 60
on variety in state constitutions, 39–40
Palmer, Robert C., 49
Papadakos, Nicholas, 155
Pashman, Morris, 148, 163, 168
(p.428) Pennsylvania
criteria approach, 146, 155–57, 162
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88
legislative authority in, 96
state ethics act applied to lawyers and judges, 292
Pennsylvania Constitution
civil rights provisions, 215
enrolled bill rule in the, 269
equality provisions, 221–24
on limitation on legislative procedure, 260–61, 263–64
vs. the New York Constitution, 55–56
Pennsylvania Constitution (1776)
constitutional theory and practice, 48–55
end of first wave of state constitutions, 43
influence on other state constitutions, 44–47, 61–62, 75, 76
influence on U.S. Constitution, 67–71
on limitation of legislative procedure, 264
opposition to, 66
public debate regarding, 59
separation of powers in, 237, 284
Pennsylvania Constitution (1790), 81
Pennsylvania Constitution (1874), 263
Pennsylvania Constitution (1877), 263, 264–65
Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention (1776), 41
Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention (1837), 84
Pennsylvania Equal Rights Amendment, 354
Pennsylvania Supreme Court, 145–46, 221–24
adopting federal constitutional tests, 206n94
on constitutional interpretation, 324
on legislative power, 253, 263–64, 266–67
on judicial budgetary matters, 294
lockstepping and, 203, 221, 229
on open meetings statutes applying to the courts, 293–94
on popular sovereignty provision, 318
on the single subject rule, 261–62
on special and local laws, 222–23, 278
on state action doctrine and free speech, 189
People the Best Governors, The, 60, 61
People v. See Name of opposing party
Perkins v. Philadelphia, 263
Peterson, Merrill D., 84, 326
Phoenix Arizona Republican, 327
Pickering, Timothy, 47
P. J. Video, Inc, People v., 178–79
plural executive, 303–4
police officers, drug testing, 184
political participation, 83
Pollock, Stewart G., 122, 155
Pope, James Gray, 23–24, 336, 337
popular constitutionalism, 32–33
popular sovereignty provisions, 32, 318
positive rights, 116–17
prayer in schools, 183
privacy
drug testing and, 102
garbage searches and, 163–69
reasonable expectation of, 163, 169–75
Proceedings of the New Jersey Constitutional Convention of 1844 (Bebout), 325
Progressive Era, 85–86
initiative and referendum movement, 280
state constitutional change during the, 5
Progressive Movement, 85
prophylactic rules, 141
Prosser, David, 333–34
Provileges and Immunities Clause, 19
PruneYard Shopping Center v. Robins, 120, 145
Ramseur, State v., 154
Randolph, Edmund, 67
Rapp v. Carey, 304–5
Reconstruction Era
state constitutional conventions, 34–35
statehood for Southern states during, 80, 90
states’ constitutional development in the, 85, 90–92
Reed, Douglas S., 32–33
referendums, 215, 280–81
“Rent Wars” in New York, 34, 84–85
(p.429) Republicanism, 46, 47–48
Republican Party, 64, 91
Respectful Address of the Mechanics in Union, 56
Revolutionary period
separation of powers during, 235–36, 248
state constitutions, 26, 37, 63, 236–37
Revolutionary War, home rule and the, 40–41
Reynolds v. Sims, 99–100
Rhode Island
automatic convention call in, 388, 392
delegation doctrine in, 244–45
Dorr Rebellion, 89
Rhode Island Lottery Commission, 239
Rhode Island Supreme Court
on appointment of legislators to administrative boards, 239
on constitutional interpretation, 346
on limited constitutional conventions, 396–97
on separation of powers, 239–40, 242
Richmond v. Thompson, 153
right of petition, 153
Riley, Dorothy, 183
Roberts Court, 6
Robinette, State v., 201–2, 228
Robinson v. Cahill, 218
Rodriguez, Daniel, 8
Roe v. Wade, 6
Rosenberg, Gerald, 286–87
Rossi, Jim, 306
Rush, Benjamin, 47, 51, 61–62
Rutgers Law Journal, 126
Ryerson, Richard, 44
Sager, Lawrence, 116, 173–74
Saldana v. State, 178
same-sex marriage, 6, 163, 209n109, 220, 283, 360, 401, 402
Schapiro, Robert, 240–41
Scheiber, Harry, 391
Schwartzenegger, Arnold, 7
Scott, People v., 180
Scudder v. Smith, 266–67
search and seizure
garbage searches, 141, 163–69, 171, 172–73
state constitutional argument in Connecticut, 161–62
state constitutional argument in Illinois, 157–58
state constitutional argument in New Jersey, 155
state lockstepping regarding, 201–5
telephone billing records, 147, 149
separation of powers (federal)
applicability to states, 233, 240–42
checks and balances, 70, 71, 83
separation of powers (state)
amendment of state constitutions, 83
checks and balances, 237
dual office holding, 242–45
early state constitutions, 62–65, 235–36
formalistic approach to, 238, 241, 288
functionalist analysis of, 238–40, 288
legislative appointees to administrative boards, 242–45, 255
local government authority, 241
separation of power (state), federal separation of powers doctrine and, 233, 240–42
Sequoyah proposed constitution (1905), 95
Shalhope, Robert E., 46
Sharpless v. Mayor of Philadelphia, 253
Shay’s Rebellion, 65
Simmons-Harris v. Goff, 200, 229
Simons, Richard, 180
slavery, 34, 89, 91
Smith v. Maryland, 167, 170–71
Sofie v. Fibreboard Corporation, 151
Solimine, Michael, 195
Souter, David H., 185, 228
South Carolina Constitution (1776), 43
South Carolina Supreme Court, on delegation of legislative power to the people, 257
South Dakota
the gubernatorial veto in, 309
public participation in legislation in, 280
statehood, 81
(p.430) South Dakota Supreme Court
on constitutional interpretation, 353
on the enrolled bill rule, 271–72
Southern states, statehood during Reconstruction, 80
Southwest Washington Chapter, National Electrical Contractors Association v. Pierce County, 217
sovereignty of the people See popular sovereignty provisions
Spartanus, 56
Spending Clause, 103–4
Spitzer, Hugh, 171
state action doctrine, 188–90
State Constitutional Commentaries and Notes, 126
state constitutional commissions, 381–87
role in constitutional revisions, 319, 325, 378, 381–87
Alabama, 387
California, 374
Florida, 369–71, 382–83
Georgia, 368–69, 386
Idaho, 387
Illinois, 375
Kentucky, 386
Maryland, 376
Mississippi, 383
Montana, 367
New Jersey, 381, 384–85
New York, 372, 383–85
Oklahoma, 383
Texas, 373
Utah, 385–86
Virginia, 366, 387
state constitutional equality provisions, 211–16
interpretation of, 216–24
State Constitutional Law Bulletin (NAAG), 126
state constitutional rights
Burger Court, 115
criminal procedure, 120, 124–26, 127, 139–40
dual enforcement, 114, 194–95
kinds of, 115–18
legitimacy of state judicial enforcement, 137–40, 177–85
majoritarian protections, 33–34, 191–92
Warren Court, 115
state constitutional rights methodology
legitimacy of, 137–40, 177–85
sequential approaches, 140–44
teaching opinions, 144–46, 158
state constitutions
as sources of public policy, 354–55
citizen and delegate impact on, 34–36
content and growth of, 21–24, 28–29, 82–83, 88–89, 380
early experimentation, 39–42
evolving traditions of, 82–86
federal common law limits on, 105
federal influence on, 78–80
federal limits on, 99–110
federal regulations limits on, 105
federal statutory limits on, 102–5
federal treaties limits on, 106
form of, 28–30
framework provisions, 20–25, 363–64
functions of, 27, 29
interpretation techniques, 313–15, 355–56
burden of constitutional challenge, 341–43
by function and quality of the provision, 334–37
by intent of prior failed provisions, 340–41
canons of statutory interpretation and negative implication, 330–34
comparison to other states, 352
contemporaneous construction, 345–46
doctrine of precedent, 349–51
effective dates, 353
evolution of the text, 338–39
executive branch analysis, 349
great ordinances, 336–37
horizontal federalism, 352
intent of the voters, 315–18
international law, 355
legislative construction, 346–49
other provisions, 354
precedent for the provision, 339–40
public policy, 354–55
retroactive application, 353
rules provided for in the constitution, 352
self-executing provisions, 343–45
(p.431)
state constitutional history, 318–30
technical meaning, 316
textual analysis, 337–38
use of colonial or territorial law, 353
interstate compact limits on, 106
issues of the era shaping, 92–97
modeled on prior states’ constitutions, 86–87, 339
origins of, 25–27
overview, 1–8
policy provisions, 20–25, 363–64
positive rights, 116–17
post-federal evolution of, 74–77
processes of state constitution making, 87–90
quality of matters in, 30–34
relation to U.S. Constitution, 17–20
rights cases and, 15–16
tort reform and, 117
1776, 42–55
1777–1780, 43, 44, 55–62, 63–65
the U.S. Constitution influenced by, 37–39, 47, 65–71
vs. the U.S. Constitution, 16–17, 20, 20–25, 31, 33–34, 114–15, 119
State Constitutions and the Protection of Individual Rights (Brennan), 121–22
state courts, See also lockstepping
statehood
Articles of Confederation and, 77
conditions imposed on states, 80
enabling acts, 106–10
“equal footing” doctrine, 80, 106, 108
Frankland, 76
slavery and, 89, 91
state constitutions and, 81–82, 85–86
U.S. Constitution on, 77
Western lands, 65, 77, 78–79
See also Specific states
state judicial branch, enforcement of separation of powers by, 236–42
state of Sequoyah proposed constitution (1905), 95
state separation of power See separation of power (state)
State v. See Name of opposing party
Stevens, John Paul, 120, 123, 170
Stevens, Thaddeus, 84
Story, Joseph, 83
strategic concerns thesis (Sager), 174
Strickland v. Washington, 206
Sturm, Albert, 381, 386
subconstitutional state law claims, 140–41
substantive due process and economic regulation, 190–92
Sullivan, State v., 204
Sunstein, Cass, 329
Supremacy Clause, 19, 20, 99, 135
Taft, William Howard, 80
Tarr, G. Alan
on amendment and revision of state constitutions, 359, 361, 367–68, 379, 401
on content of state constitutions, 362
on new judicial federalism, 3
on relation between state courts and the U.S. Supreme Court, 115, 119, 195, 227–28
on state constitutional history materials, 319–20
on state constitutional jurisprudence, 5
on state constitutional rights jurisprudence, 115
on state constitutions evolution, function, and form, 21, 28, 82, 84
taxation and finance, in state constitutions, 28
uniformity, 210, 223–24
teaching opinions, 144–46, 158
Tennessee
limited constitutional conventions in, 393
statehood, 81
territorial controversies, 65, 75–77
Texas
constitutional commissions in, 373
gag rule, 182
newspaper coverage of constitutional conventions in, 326–27
Texas Constitution
enrolled bill rule in the, 268–69
on judicial review of legislative titles, 290
revision of the, 373–74
(p.432) Texas Constitution (1876), 96
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, adopting federal constitutional tests, 206
Texas Supreme Court
on constitutional interpretation, 335, 355
disputed methodology questions, 178, 182–83
Thayer, James B., 94
Thies v. State Board of Elections, 322–23
Thorne, State v., 153
Thoughts on Government (Adams), 50, 51, 52, 54
Tisler, People v., 157–58, 159
Topf, Mel A., 297
tort reform and state constitutions, 117
Traynor, Roger, 122
treaties and state constitutions, 106
Treatise on Constitutional Conventions (Jameson), 381–82, 404
Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations Which Rest Upon the Legislative Power of the States of the American Union, A (Cooley), 10
Tribe, L., 216
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 79
underenforcement thesis (Sager), 173
unicameral legislature, 44, 48, 57
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 355
U.S. Congress
legislative limits, 257
vs. state legislatures, 69, 249–50
U.S. Constitution
as model for state constitutions, 81–82
Bill of Rights, 113, 135, 336
constitutional amendment ratification by states, 100–101, 252
Due Process Clause, 336
on enacting legislation, 257
epics reflected in the, 94
Equal Protection Clause, 99–100, 208–9, 215–17, 220–24, 336
Establishment Clause, 200
First Amendment, 187, 189, 189–90, 201
Fourteenth Amendment, 113, 189, 214
Fourth Amendment, 163–69, 186, 187–88, 202–3
Free Speech Clause, 336
Full Faith and Credit clause, 18
Guarantee Clause, 18–19, 101, 390
incomplete document, 2
interpretation of the, 318
on judicial power, 285–86
legislative powers in, 69
limitations on state constitutions, 18–19, 99–110
Ninth Amendment, 118
ratification of the, 65
relation to state constitutions, 17–20
on slavery, 34
Spending Clause, 103–4
state constitutions influence on, 37–39, 47, 65–71
state constitutions using language from the, 339
Supremacy Clause, 19, 20, 99, 135
vs. state constitutions, 16–17, 20–25, 31, 33–34, 114–15, 119, 362
U.S. Supreme Court
advisory opinions and, 296
on the Alabama Constitution’s voter provision, 319
on doctrine of precedent, 350
on equal protection, 215–16, 220–24
on harmless error rules, 186
on the initiative process, 390
power of decisions, 135–36
on retroactivity rules, 186
on taking of property for economic development, 6
See also lockstepping
Utah
burden of state constitutional challenge in, 342
constitutional commission in, 385–86
statehood, 80
Utah Constitution (1849), 95
Utah Constitution Revision Study Commission, 385–86
Utah Supreme Court, criteria approach, 177
Utter, Robert, 143–44, 151, 225–26
dual sovereignty approach, 143–44
(p.433) Van Buren, Martin, 83
Verkuil, Paul, 243
Vermeule, Adrian, 226, 287–88
Vermont
criteria approach, 169
equality doctrine, 221
statehood, 76
Vermont Constitution
length of, 28
Pennsylvania’s constitution as model for, 61, 75
Vermont Supreme Court, 145
on delegation of police power, 257
on same-sex marriage, 283
Vile, John, 70
Vile, M.J.C., 237
Virginia
constitutional commissions in, 366, 387
equality provision, 211–12
extra-legal constitutional conventions in, 88, 89
the gubernatorial veto in, 309
Underwood Constitution, 92
Virginia Bill of Rights (1776), 211–12
Virginia Constitution, 66–67, 74, 366
Virginia Constitution (1902), 92
Virginia Constitutional Convention (1829–1830), 84
Virginia Supreme Court
on equal protection, 214–15
on limited constitutional conventions, 394
on self-executing provisions and sovereign immunity, 345
on the state equal rights amendment, 217
Vreeland v. Byrne, 336
Wachtler, Sol, 180
Warren Court, 115, 367
Warren, Earl, 247
Washington
criteria approach, 146, 148–50, 151–54, 162, 169
equality doctrine, 221
state-financed religious scholarships, 109–10
Washington, People v., 159
Washington Supreme Court, 143–44, 151–54
court personnel elections, 149
dual sovereignty approach, 143–44
on the enrolled bill rule, 269
on equal protection provisions (state and federal), 217
on garbage searches, 165–68, 171
lockstepping approach used by, 204
water rights, 85
Webster, Daniel, 83
Western states’ constitutional conventions, 97
See also Specific states
West Virginia
interstate compact provisions, 106
sovereign immunity provisions limited by federal law, 102–3
statehood, 90
West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals, 131
on constitutional interpretation, 355
on nonwaivable free speech rights, 187
on judicial personnel parking spaces, 294
westward expansion, 65, 77, 78–79
Wiecek, William, 84
Wigmore, John H., 275
Williams, State v., 147, 165
Williams v. Taylor, 269
Wilson, James, 62, 66, 67, 68, 70, 235
Winberry v. Salisbury, 291
Wisconsin
constitutional conventions in, 393
equality doctrine, 221
newspaper coverage of constitutional conventions in, 326–27
Wisconsin Supreme Court
on adopting federal constitutional tests, 206n94, 207
on constitutional interpretation, 353
on gubernatorial veto power, 308
on interpreting a constitutional provision, 314
Wood, Gordon S., 65, 236, 248, 249
Wyoming Supreme Court, disputed methodology questions, 178
Yates, Abraham, Jr., 55
Young, Alfred, 63
Zappala, J., 203
Zimmerman, Michael, 342