International organizations or other established groups of states also take countermeasures in response to international law violations. One category of such measures is to enforce the rules of the organization or group — such as International Monetary Fund measures against borrowers that fail to repay. Collections of states also take measures to enforce general international law. These measures are commonly termed “sanctions”. Sanctions are a general-purpose law enforcement tool. They must be proportional in the circumstances and may require Security Council authorization. In the case of human rights, however, collective action short of significant armed force may be lawful today.
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