Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Machinery of Criminal Justice - Oxford Scholarship Online
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

The Machinery of Criminal Justice

Stephanos Bibas


Two centuries ago the criminal justice system was primarily run by laymen. In court, victims and defendants interacted face to face while lay jurors from the community sat in judgment. Jury trials passed moral judgment on crimes, vindicated victims and innocent defendants, denounced guilty defendants, and reconciled and healed wounded relationships. But over the last two centuries, lawyers have taken over the process, silencing victims and defendants and, in many cases, substituting a plea-bargaining system for voice of the jury. This lawyerized machinery has purchased efficient, speedy proces ... More

Keywords: criminal justice system, laymen, victims, defendants, lay jurors, jury trials, lay participation

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780195374681
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374681.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Stephanos Bibas, author
University of Pennsylvania Law School