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Global Occupational Health$
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Tee L. Guidotti

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780195380002

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380002.001.0001

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Monitoring and Surveillance

Monitoring and Surveillance

(p.93) 5 Monitoring and Surveillance
Global Occupational Health

Jukka Uitti

Panu Oksa

Oxford University Press

This chapter looks at Monitoring which refers to tracking the health experience of a group of workers and surveillance, which refers to tracking reports of cases of particular injuries or diseases. Mandated surveillance is when the surveillance program is required by law or regulation. Environmental monitoring refers to exposure assessment and normally involves measurements of hazards in the workplace. It can assess exposures by measuring the chemical or its products from body fluids from the workers or, as biological monitoring, measuring the effect of the chemical on the body. Medical surveillance evaluates the health of individual workers through medical examinations and tests. Periodic health surveillance seeks to identify early signs of a health problem and to correct the problem and to remove the worker from exposure before it gets worse. Surveillance programs can be either passive or active and require screening tests. The predictive value of a test is the probability that a person with a positive result will actually have the disease. Predictive value depends on both sensitivity of the test in identifying abnormalities and the specificity of the test for identifying a particular disease, but also on how common the disease is the population. Fitness-to-work evaluations are screening tests performed to determine that a worker can safely do the job.

Keywords:   monitoring, surveillance, mandated surveillance, biological monitoring, medical monitoring, periodic health surveillance, passive surveillance, active surveillance, screening tests, sensitivity, specificity, fitness-to-work, predictive value

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