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Epidemiology and the People’s HealthTheory and Context$

Nancy Krieger

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780195383874

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383874.001.0001

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(p.373) Index

(p.373) Index

Source:
Epidemiology and the People’s Health
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Note: Page references followed by “f ” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
Absolute poverty
defined, 8
“Worldmapper” project, 10 f
Accountability and agency, ecosocial theory, 225–27
Achenwall, Gottfried, 58
Ackernecht, Erwin H., 74
Adler, Alfred, 147
Agassiz, Louis, 91
Alison, Somerville Scott, 73
Alison, William Pulteney, 73
Allostasis, 193
Allostatic load, 193
American Public Health Association, 149
American Social Science Association, 59
American Sociological Association, 22
American Statistical Association, 59
Asthma, 249
Athens, 47
Ayerst, 237
B
Bacteria and the Germ Theory of Disease, 101
Balance, in metaphors for health
in allostasis, 193
in ancient China, in hierarchy, 50–54
in ancient Greece, of equals, 43–49
in dialectical historical materialism, 172
in homeostasis, 192–94
in Kallawayan theory, oscillatory, 54–56
notion of, 43–44
Barker, David JP, 261
Bastien, Joseph W., 54
Berkman, Lisa, 165, 193
Bernard, Claude, 192
Beta-carotene and lung cancer, 155
Beyond the Germ Theory, 150
Biomedical engineering, 127
Biomedical model
critique of, 133–35
defined, 129
metaphors animating, 137, 138 t
objective of, 127
tenets of, 130, 136–37, 139
Biomedical science, 127, 128, 129–30, 129
descriptions and assumptions of, 131–35
features, 130
Biomedical Science and its Administration: A Study of the National Institutes of Health, 130, 131, 136
Biomedicine
defined, 126–27, 128–29
origins, 127, 129–30
reductionist approach, 133–35, 136
Black vs. White health
differential disease rates,19th century arguments over, 91–94
eugenic interpretations, 113
health inequities, contemporary, 115–20
W.E.B. Du Bois, on, 116–18
Blake, William, 22
Blane, Gilbert, 70
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 86, 87–88
Breast cancer
and hormone therapy (HT), 245–46
incidence rates (p.374)
Clemmesen’s Denmark data for age-specific groups, 24 f
MacMahon’s Connecticut data for birth cohorts, 25–26 f
rise and fall in U.S., 8, 8 f
Bronfenbrenner, Urie, 204
Brown, John, 94
Buck v. Bell, 109, 114–15
C
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), 181
Cancer and the Environment: Gene-Environment Interactions, 156
Cannon, Walter B., 192
Cardiovascular disease
epidemiology of, 237
estrogen for, 243
hormone therapy (HT) for, 237, 243–45
Cartwright, Samuel A., 91
Cassel, John, 193, 195–96
“Caucasians,” history of term, 86, 91
Census data, emergence of, 66
Chadwick, Edwin, 72
Chagas disease, 55
Changing patterns of life, death, and disease, 65–67
Chapin, Dr. Charles V., 103, 105–6, 108
Chervin, Nicholas, 70
Child survival in relation to Gross National Income per capita, "Gapminder" project, 12, 13–16 f
Chinese medicine systems, 50–54
Five Phases (wu-hsing), 50
Huáng dì nèi jin, 50, 52–53, 52 t
mutual production and conquest sequences of, 51 f
Qi, 50, 51
systems of correspondence, 52 t
Yin and yang, 50–51
Cholera, 71–72
Chou dynasty, 53
CIFAR. See Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)
Clemmesen, Johannes, 24
breast cancer incidence data for Denmark, 24 f
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 111
Colonialism and population health, 56, 86–89
Condition of the Working Class in England, The, 81, 82–85
Contagion, 70–71, 71, 77
Contagium vivum, 97
Coronary Drug Project, 243
Cow ovaries, tablets made from, 237
Crawford, John, 70
Critical realism, 227
Cromwell, Oliver, 63, 65
Crookshank, F.G., 106, 107
Currie, William, 70
Cuvier, George, 91
D
Darwin, Charles, 94, 205
Davenport, Charles B., 109, 111
Davey Smith, George, 274, 289–90
De Condorcet, Marquis, 59
Death rates
changing patterns of, 65–67
quantifying patterns of, 61–65
Declaration of Alma-Ata, 178–79
Declaration of Helsinki, 1964, 236
Democracy, in ancient Greece, 43, 47, 49
Demos in ancient Greece, 43
Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), 156, 160–61
Diabetes and Indigenous health, 249–63
“civilization” and, 249, 258
"thrifty gene" hypothesis, explication and critique of, 249–61, 250–58
“thrifty phenotype” hypothesis, 261–62
Dialectical Biologist, The, 172
Dialectical historical materialism, 172, 177–78
Discrimination, as a determinant of health inequities, 287–88, 287 f. See also Racial/ethnic differences
Disease rates
changing patterns of, 65–67
quantifying patterns of, 61–65
Disease distribution, 30. See also Epidemiology
DNA, 23, 139
DOHaD. See Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD)
Dorling, Danny, 286
Drapetomania, 91
Du Bois, W.E.B., 115, 118, 119
Dysesthesia Ethiopia, 91
E
Ebrahim, Shah, 274, 289–90
Eco-epidemiology, 202, 204
Ecological systems theory, by Bronfenbrenner, 204–5
Ecology, 202, 203–4. See also Ecosocial theory
defined, 206–8
human development model of, 204–5
levels, 210–13
oikos, Greek word (deriviation for “ecology”), 205
(p.375)
origins of, 205–13
political. See Political ecology
spatiotemporal scale, 210–13
Ecosocial theory of disease distribution, 202, 203
accountability and agency, 225–27
core constructs, 214 f
core propositions, 215
embodiment. See Embodiment
historical generation, 213, 225
integrated theorizing, 204, 227
interplay of exposure, susceptibility, and resistance, 222–23
level, in, 202, 203, 210, 213, 214, 215, 224–32, 235
lifecourse, in, 213, 214
metaphor, fractal, 227–28, 229 f
pathways of embodiment, 203, 214, 224, 226
spatiotemporal scale, in, 203, 215, 225, 228, 230
Embodiment, 214 f, 215–16
biological processes, 216, 217–21
cognitive and neurosciences, 222
concept, 215
in ecosocial theory, 215, 216, 224
multiple pathways of, 222, 223, 225
Engel, George, 193
Engels, Friedrich, 81–85, 82–85, 168, 172
Engendering public health surveillance systems, 283–85
English Royal Society, 62
ENIAC computer, 150
Environmental justice movements, 180
Epidemic, ancient Greek derivation of term, 43
“Epidemic constitution,” per Sydenham, 63
Epidemics and Crowd-Diseases: An Introduction to the Study of Epidemiology, 125
Epidemics and germ theory, 102–3, 106
“Epidemics, Book I,” Hippocratic Corpus, 46
“Epidemics, Book II,” Hippocratic Corpus, 46
Epidemiología Española, 58
Epidemiologic Methods, 151, 151–52 f
Epidemiologic textbooks, 32–41, 34 41t
Epidemiologic theory, 28–41, 272–73, 275–95
biomedical and lifestyle approach vs. a social determinants of health approach, 289–94
in epidemiologic textbooks, 32–41, 33–41 t
features of, 28–31, 29 f
reflexive feature of, 31
“Epidemiologic transition” theory, 223
Epidemiology, 43
ancient Greek derivation of term, 43
biomedical and lifestyle approaches and, 154–55
Morris on, 168–69, 169
scope of, 124–25
as a self-defined scientific discipline, 58
successes and failures, 273, 274
Epigenetics, 139, 145
“Epigenetic landscape,” per Waddington, 145
Error, Types I – III, 272
Estrogen
carcinogenicity of, 237
for cardiovascular disease, 243
Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer tumors, 245
Estrogen-induced endometrial cancer, 243
Estrogen-progestin HT, 241–42, 243
Eugenic Record Office, 111
Eugenics, 106, 108–15
concept, 108, 111
excerpts from works on, 109–11
inborn deficiencies, 112
inborn superiority, 111
negative side of, 112–15
sterilization laws, 114–15
tenets, 108
Eugenics Review, 214
Evans-Pritchard, Edwards, 56, 57
Evils of Quarantine Laws, and Non-Existence of Pestilential Contagion; Deduced from the Phaenomena of the Plague of the Levant, the Yellow Fever of Spain, and the Cholera Morbus of Asia, 71
Evolutionary medicine, 156, 158–60
Experimental medicine, 127
Eyer, Joseph, 179, 193
F
FDA. See Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Female sex hormone therapy, 237
Feminine Forever, 237, 238–39
Filth, as cause of miasma, 67, 72
Finlay, Carlos, 71
Fisher, R. A., 112
Fleck, Ludwig, 26
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 237
FORTRAN, computer language, 150
Framingham Heart Study, 150
Fractal metaphor, ecosocial theory of disease distribution, 227–28, 229 f
Frank, Johann Peter, 67, 68–69
Frost, Wade Hampton, 103, 107–8
Fundamental cause, 181, 184
Further Observations on the Dublin Bills, 63
Future of Biomedical Research, The, 132, 136–37
(p.376) G
Galen, 47, 48
Galton, Francis, 108, 111–12
Gamble, Vanessa Northington, 113
“Gapminder” project, 286
child survival in relation to Gross National Income per capita, 12, 13–16 f
GEI. See Gene-environment interaction (GEI)
Gender in public health surveillance systems, 277, 278, 283–85
Gender inequality and health, 180, 216–20
Gender relations, sex-linked biology, and health, 216, 217–21
Gene frequency, 216
Gene-environment interaction (GEI), 156, 157–58
General adaptation syndrome, 192–93
Germ theory, 97–106, 130
chronology of development, 98–99 t
in contrast to, and replacement, for “contagion” and “miasma” theories, 97–101
and disease prevention, 101–2
in early twentieth century, 97, 99 t
epidemics and, 102–3, 106
germs, characteristics of, 95, 99–100
infectious diseases and, 97
metaphors, 100–101
in mid and late nineteenth century, 97, 98–99 t
“seed and soil” metaphor, 100–101
“war” metaphor, 101
Germ Theory: Applied to the Explanation of the Phenomena of Disease: The Specific Fevers, The, 97, 104
Gilbert, Walter, 23
Gilles, Eva, 56–57
Gradle, Henry, 101
Graham, Saxon, 165
Granda, Edmundo, 189
Graunt, John, 61, 62, 62
Great Depression, 120
Greece, ancient
democracy in, 43, 47, 49
demos in, 43
disease distribution in, 43–49
“epidemic,” derivation of term, 43
slavery in, 43, 47, 49
Greek humoral theory of disease distribution, 44, 45 f, 46–47
Greenwood, Major, 103, 106, 271
Grmek, Mirko, 46
Guy, William, 58
H
Haeckel, Ernst, 205, 206–7
Hales, C. Nicholas, 261
Halley, Edmond, 63
Hamilton, Alice, 115–16, 117–18
Handbook of Geographical and Historical Pathology, 74, 75–76
Health and Environment, 120–24, 168
selected excerpts, 121–23
table of contents, 121
Health and human rights, 190–91
Health and Physique of the Negro American, 118, 119
Health equity, national policies and global recommendations, 289–94
Health inequalities, 263, 268–70
Healthy People 2010, 270
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), 247
antibiotics for infection from, 249
genetic susceptibility, 247
medical interventions for infection from, 249
and peptic ulcer, 247, 249
Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences, 111
Heredity in Relation to Eugenics, 109, 111
Hippocrates of Cos, 44
Hippocratic corpus, 43, 44, 46
Hippocratic treatises, 43, 46
Hirsch, August, 74, 75–76
HIV/AIDS, 222
Hoffman, Frederick, 109–10, 113
Homeostasis, 192
Hormone therapy (HT), previously termed “hormone replacement therapy,” 237–46
breast cancer and, 245–46
for cardiovascular disease, 237, 243–45
for menopause, 237, 238–43
risks of, 244, 245
and Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), 244, 245
Hosack, David, 70
Huáng dì nèi jin, 50, 52–53, 52 t
Human ecology, 202, 203–4
Hypothesis, defined, 20–21
I
IBMS. See Institute for Biomedical Sciences (IBMS)
Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier, The, 200
Income and health, 3, 13–16, 67–85, 271–72
Indigenous health
“civilization” and, 249, 258
diabetes, and, 249–63
Kallawaya, 56
Pima Indians, diabetes in, 253–55
"thrifty gene" hypothesis, 249–61, 250–58
(p.377)
“thrifty phenotype” hypothesis, 261–62
Tohono O’odham Indians, diabetes in, 262, 264–68
in 20th century, 180, 249–63
in United States,18th and 19th century, 56, 66, 86, 89
Indigenous rights, 172
Individualism
defined, 141–44
methodological. See Methodological individualism
theoretical assumptions, 138 t
Industrial Poisons in the United States, 115–16, 117–18
Industrial Revolution and population health, 65–66
Inequalities in Health: A Report of a Research Working Group, 179
Institute for Biomedical Sciences (IBMS), 127
International Classification of Diseases, 65
International Conference on Primary Health Care, 178
International human rights law, 190
International Journal of Health Services, 172
Ipsen, Johannes, 151
Islamic medicine, 48
J
Jaco, E. Gartly, 165
Jarvis, Edmund, 59
Jax, Kurt, 209
Journal of Biosocial Research, 213, 214
Journal of Political Ecology, 233
K
Kallawaya, Andean theory of disease distribution, 54–56
Chagas disease, 55
oscillatory balance and health, 54–56
topographical-hydraulic model of body concept, 54–55, 55 f
Kawachi, Ichiro, 165
Kimbal, Allyn W., 271
Korean War, 145
Krieger, Nancy, and ecosocial theory of disease distribution, 202–4
L
Latin American Social Medicine Association, 189
Latin American social medicine/collective health, 187, 189–90
health–illness process, concept of, 189
health–illness–care, concept of, 189
Lead exposure in the twentieth century United States, 224
Lee, Rebecca, 92–93
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health, 180
Levels, in ecological theorizing, 210–13
Levins, Richard, 172
Lewontin, Richard, 23, 172
L’homme moyenne, 59
Lieberson, Stanley, 22
Life table, 62, 63
Lifestyle, 146–48
Adler on, 147
conceptualization of, 146, 147
epidemiologic literature, 146 t, 147–48
in public health, 147–48
Weber on, 146, 147
London Epidemiological Society, 58
London Statistical Society, 58
Lung cancer, 30
M
Maclagan, T. J., 97, 99, 104
Maclean, Charles, 71
MacMahon, Brian, 24, 151
breast cancer incidence data for Connecticut, 25–26 f
Marmot, Michael, 198, 199–200
Marshall, Barry, 247
Material deprivation, and health, 193
McCarthy, Joseph M., 145
McCarthyism and science, 145
McEwen, Bruce S., 193
McMichael, Tony, 202, 203–4, 207
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 137
Menopause, 237, 238–43
Merchant, Carolyn, 209
Metaphor
in scientific theorizing, 17, 22
in theories of disease distribution, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55, 100, 137, 138, 167, 228, 229
Methodological individualism. See also Individualism
defined, 141–44
tenets of, 140, 145–46
Miasma, 70–71, 71, 77
Models for Biomedical Research: A New Perspective, 131–32
Morris, Jerry, 8, 168–71
Morton, Samuel George, 91
Mosteller, Frederick, 271
Multiple pathways of embodiment, 222, 223
N
National Health Survey, 120
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 129–30
(p.378) National Research Council, 127
Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality, 62, 62
Natural sciences, 59
“Nature of Man, The,” Hippocratic text, 43, 44, 45
Navarro, Vicente, 172
Nazi racial ideology, 114
Needham, Joseph, 227
Neel, James V., 249, 250–53, 258
Neumann, Roderick, 233
Nott, Josiah C., 93
O
Observations upon the Dublin Bills of Mortality, 63
Occupations and health
in 19th century, 69, 78, 82–85, 115–18
occupational health epidemiology, 115–20
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 154
Ogori, theories of disease distribution, 56–57
Oikos, Greek word (derivation for “ecology”), 205
On Diet, Hippocratic Corpus, 43
On the Natural Variety of Mankind, 86, 87–88
On the Origin of Species, 94, 205
On the Fourteenth Query of Thomas Jefferson’s Notes on Virginia, 94
Oral contraceptive pill, 237
Our Bodies, Ourselves, 240
P
Pan American Health Organization, 190
Patients, Physicians, and Illness: Sourcebook in Behavioral Science and Medicine, 165
Pearson, Karl, 112
“People’s Misery, The: The Mother of Diseases,” 67, 68–69
Peptic ulcers
cause of, 246–47
as a “disease of civilization,” 247
H. pylori and, 247, 249
in industrialized countries, 247
mortality, 247, 248 f
stress and, 246–47
Petty, William, 61–62, 61
Philadelphia Negro, The, 117, 119
Pima Indians, diabetes in, 255–57
Pinckard, George, 90–91
Poison, as explanation of contagion, 67, 69, 74, 76
Political Anatomy of Ireland, 61
Political Arithmetick, 61
Political ecology, 228, 233–34
conceptual work in, 231–32, 233
ecosocial theory and, 228, 233
and social epidemiology, 234
Political Ecology of Disease in Tanzania, The, 234
Political Economy of Health, The, 176–77, 178
Political economy of health/social production of disease
conceptual premises, 167–68
de-politicizing and re-politicizing of, 180–87
etiologic hypotheses and empirical investigation, 179–80
historical development, 168–79
power, 167
social determinants of health, 181, 182–84
societal vs. social determinants of health, 185–87, 186–87 f, 188 f
Population groups, 216
Population health, as theoretical framework, 181–84
Poverty and health, 13, 67–85, 115–25, 179
Premarin
and cardiovascular mortality, 243
FDA approval, 237
for menopause, 237
Premature mortality, 269, 270
inequities (1960–2002), 3
deaths before age years, 4 f
infant deaths, 5 f
Present State of the Germ-Theory of Disease, The, 105–6
Progestin, 243
Promenades dans Londres, 66
Psychological deprivation, 193
Psychosocial theories of disease distribution, 191–201
defined, 163
general adaptation syndrome, 192–93
homeostasis, 192
postulated mechanisms, 197–98
psychological deprivation, 193
stress, biology, and behavior, 192 f
tenets, 197–98
vs. sociopolitical theories, 198, 201
“Public Health at the Crossroads,” 95
Public Health Service Act of 1944, 129
Public health surveillance systems, 276–80
gender in, 277, 278, 283–85
racial/ethnic data in, 280–82
socioeconomic data in, 276–80
Pugh, Thomas F., 151
(p.379) Q
Qi, Chinese medicine system, 50, 51
Quantifying patterns of life, death, and disease, 61–65
Quetelet, Adolphe, 59
R
“Race,” concepts and history of, 86–91
Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro, 109–10, 113
Racial discrimination and health, 180, 287–88
pathways harming health, 287 f
Racial/ethnic data in public health surveillance systems, 280–82
Racial/ethnic differences
in disease distribution, 86–94
environmental explanations, 18th and 19th century, 86, 89
health disparities, contemporary, 115–20, 180, 287–88
Reductionist approach
biomedicine, 133–35
defining, 136
Reed, Walter, 71
Reeder, Leo G., 165
Reflexive sciences, 21
Review of Radical Political Economy, 234
“Risk factor,” first use of term, 150
Rock, John S., 93
Rose, Geoffrey, 153, 271
Rosling, Hans, 286
Rush, Benjamin, 70, 90
S
Sapolsky, R.M., 199
Sargent, M.G., 132
Science
assumptions, 21, 22
defined, 17, 18–19
referent reality, 21, 22
“Science for the people,” 172
“Science of statistics,” 58
Scientific evidence, 28
Scientific medicine, 127
Scientific theory
assumptions of, 22
definition of, 17, 21
features of, 29 f
as a map, 28
metaphor and mechanisms, 22, 28
non-science criticisms of, 28
substantive and explanatory concepts, 22
testing and evaluation of, 26, 28
Sewage treatment, 101–2
Sex-linked biology, gender relations, and health, 216, 217–21
Seyle, Hans, 192–93
Shattuck, Lemuel, 72–73
Sinclair, John, 58
Slavery
in ancient Greece, 43, 47, 49
in the United States, 86, 89–94
Smallpox, 67, 89
Smith, James McCune, 93, 94
Smoking, 222
Snow, John, 71–72
Social class and health, 67–85, 115–25, 173–77
Social Darwinism, 106. See also Eugenics
Social determinants of health, as theoretical framework, 181, 185–87, 186–87 f, 188 f
Social epidemiology, 78, 163
biomedical and lifestyle vs., 164 f
commonalities and contrasts of different social epidemiologic theoretical frameworks, 166 f
features, 163, 164
history of, 165
psychosocial theory. See Psychosocial theories of disease distribution
sociopolitical theory. See Sociopolitical theories of disease distribution
theoretical perspectives, 163
Social Epidemiology, 165
Social Epidemiology of Mental Disorders; A Psychiatric Survey of Texas, The, 165
Social gradients in health, 198, 199–200
Social production of disease/political economy of health
conceptual premises, 167–68
de-politicizing and re-politicizing of, 180–87
etiologic hypotheses and empirical investigation, 179–80
historical development, 168–79
power, 167
social determinants of health, 181, 182–84
societal vs. social determinants of health, 185–87, 186–87 f, 188 f
Social science, emergence and definition of, 59
Societal determinants of health, as theoretical framework, 185–87, 186–87 f, 188 f
Socioeconomic data in public health surveillance systems, 276–80
“Socio-Economic Background of Negro Health Status, The,” 120
(p.380) Sociopolitical theories of disease distribution
defined, 163
frameworks, 164, 165
health and human rights, 190–91
Latin American social medicine/collective health, 187, 189–90
political economy of health. See Political economy of health/social production of disease
social determinants, 166
social production of disease. See Social production of disease/political economy of health
societal organization, 166
societal vs. social determinants of health, 185–87, 186–87 f, 188 f
Sources and Modes of Infection, The, 103
Sparta, 47
Spatiotemporal scale, 210
debates, example, 211–13
ecosocial theory and, 226
Statistical Account of Scotland, 58
Statistics, concept of, 58–59
“Status syndrome,” 198, 199–200
Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects our Health and Longevity, The, 199–200
Sterilization laws, eugenic, 114–15
Sterling, Peter, 179, 193
STREGA. See STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA)
STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA), 273
STrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE), 273
Stress
in psychosocial theories of disease distribution, 192–200
and peptic ulcers, 246–47
Stress in Health and Disease, 193
“Stress-Related Mortality and Social Organization,” 175, 179, 193
STROBE. See STrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)
Style of life, 147. See also Lifestyle
Susser, Ezra, 202
Susser, Mervyn, 202, 247
Sweden, New Public Health Policy, 290–94
Sydenham, Thomas, 63, 65
Sydenstricker, Edgar, 120–24, 121–23
Syme, S. Leonard, 165, 193
Syphilis, 67
T
Taubes, Gary, 272
Theory
defined, 3, 19–20
of disease distribution vs. of disease causation, 30
Thomas, Lewis, 131, 137
"Thrifty gene" hypothesis, 249–61, 250–58
faulty assumption in, 259–60
“Thrifty phenotype” hypothesis, 261–62
Tibbitts, Clark, 120
Tohono O’odham Indians, diabetes in, 262, 264–68
“Tradition in Medicine,” Hippocratic text, 46
Trask, John William, 118–19, 120
Tristan, Flora, 66
Turshen, Meredith, 234
U
UDHR. See Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
United Nations, 190
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 54
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 190
Upper Silesia, 19th century typhus epidemic, 74
“Upstream/downstream” metaphor, in social epidemiology, 228
U.S. Association of Schools of Public Health, 149
U.S. Constitution, 66
U.S. President’s Research Committee on Social Trends, 120
U.S. War Department in World War II, 150
Uses of Epidemiology, 31, 170–71
Uses of Epidemiology (article), 8, 168
V
Vaccines, 102
Varmus, Harold E., 136–37
Vidal-Naquet, P., 47
Villalba, Don Joaquin, 58
Villermé, Louis René, 78–80, 79, 80 t, 168
Virchow, Rudolf, 74, 168
Vygotsky, Lev, 205
W
Waddington, C.H., 145
Warren, Robin, 247
Water filtration, 101–2
(p.381) Watson, James D., 23
Web of causation
biomedical and lifestyle, 148–62
“spiderless,” 148, 151–54
Weber, Max, 146
Webster, Noah, 70
WHI. See Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)
Wilkinson, R.G., 200
Williams, Raymond, 275
Winslow, Charles-Edward Amory, 95, 106
Winthrop, John, 89
Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azandes, 56
Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), 244
Woolridge Committee, 130, 136
Workers’ rights, 172
Working class, 81–85, 82–85
Workplace hazards, 81, 85
World Health Organization (WHO)
Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), 181, 277, 290–94
Declaration of Alma-Ata, 178–79
“Worldmapper” project, 8, 285
absolute poverty, 10 f
countries scaled to land size, 10 f
countries scaled to population size, 10 f
infant mortality, 11 f
lung cancer deaths, 11 f
preventable deaths, 12 f
sewerage sanitation, 12 f
wealth (gross domestic product), 11 f
Wyeth, 244
Y
Yankauer, Alfred, 165
Yellow fever, 89, 90
Yellow River, 54
Yin and yang, 50, 51
qualities of, 51 f
systems of correspondence, 52 t
visual symbol of flow and interpenetration of, 51 f
Z
Zymotic theory, 69 (p.382) (p.383)