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Artifacts in Behavioral ResearchRobert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books$
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Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195385540

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.001.0001

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Communication of Experimenter Expectancy

Communication of Experimenter Expectancy

(p.519) 16 Communication of Experimenter Expectancy
Artifacts in Behavioral Research

Robert Rosenthal

Oxford University Press

This chapter addresses the question: How does the experimenter inform his subject what it is he expects the subject to do? Data from several studies including the leisurely analysis of films suggests that no gross errors are responsible. Experimenters do not tell their subjects in words or even in any obvious gestures what it is they expect from them. Errors of observation and of recording, although they do occur, occur so rarely as to be trivial to any explanation of experimenter expectancy effects.

Keywords:   experimenter effects, experimenter expectancy, expectancy effects, experimenter behavior, subjects, errors of observation

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