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Immigration WorldwidePolicies, Practices, and Trends$
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Uma A. Segal, Doreen Elliott, and Nazneen S. Mayadas

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195388138

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388138.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 October 2021



Refugee History and Policies of Pakistan: An Afghan Case Study

(p.171) 12 Pakistan
Immigration Worldwide

Shireen S. Issa

Gail Desmond

Fariyal Ross

Oxford University Press

In Pakistan, the only law pertaining to immigrants is the Foreigners Order of 1951 (amended in 2000). All immigrants or refugees in Pakistan, unless otherwise determined, are therefore considered illegal immigrants and may be detained by Pakistani authorities unless they have valid travel documents and a visa for Pakistan (USCR WRS, 2007). The absence of policies governing immigrants and refugees coupled with porous borders leaves Pakistan unable to control the influx of illegal immigrants and asylum seekers. Combined with the “politics of protection,” a less-than-enabling policy environment has fueled Pakistan's vacillating treatment of refugees over the years. This chapter reviews Pakistan's immigration and refugee history and policies, with a specific focus on the Afghan refugee movements in and out of Pakistan primarily in four phases. The chapter draws connections between this immigration pattern, the host countries’ policies and programs, and the geopolitics that influenced this policy environment.

Keywords:   refugees, immigration, immigration policy, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Afghans, Afghan conflict, asylum seekers

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