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Brain–Computer InterfacesPrinciples and Practice$
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Jonathan Wolpaw and Elizabeth Winter Wolpaw

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780195388855

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.001.0001

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BCIs That Use Brain Metabolic Signals

BCIs That Use Brain Metabolic Signals

18 BCIs That Use Brain Metabolic Signals
Brain–Computer Interfaces

Ranganatha Sitaram

Sangkyun Lee

Niels Birbaumer

Oxford University Press

Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) currently under development use the brain's electrical signals. Nevertheless, nonelectrical metabolic signals also have potential for use in BCI development. Two methods currently available for measuring brain metabolic activity that are of greatest immediate interest for BCI development are: functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fNIRS has the advantages of being noninvasive and inexpensive. fMRI has the advantages of being noninvasive and providing very high spatial resolution. This chapter focuses on BCIs based on fNIRS and fMRI methods. It reviews the fundamental principles underlying their use, the factors important in their use for BCIs, the kinds of BCI applications that are most promising, and possible future directions and challenges.

Keywords:   brain-computer interfaces, brain signals, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, metabolic activity

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