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Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s$
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Gordon M. Shepherd MD, DPhil

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195391503

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.001.0001

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Neurosurgery: From Cushing to Penfield

Neurosurgery: From Cushing to Penfield

(p.193) 14 Neurosurgery: From Cushing to Penfield
Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Gordon M. Shepherd

Oxford University Press

This chapter traces the development of neurosurgery. Neurosurgery did not begin to emerge as a specialty until around 1900. Harvey Cushing at Hopkins and Harvard led the way, based on meticulous surgical technique and combinations of technical approaches. Surgery for pituitary tumors was among his best-known advances, including the identification of “Cushing disease.” Visualization of the brain was attempted by pneumoencephalography and cerebral angiography, the latter much improved in the 1950s by the introduction of femoral injections, which stimulated the rise of neuroradiology.

Keywords:   brain surgery, development of neurosurgery, neuroradiology, Harvey Cushing

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