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The Company-StateCorporate Sovereignty and the Early Modern Foundations of the British Empire in India$
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Philip J. Stern

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780195393736

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393736.001.0001

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“A Sword in One Hand & Money in the Other”

“A Sword in One Hand & Money in the Other”

Old Patterns, New Rivals

(p.185) 9 “A Sword in One Hand & Money in the Other”
The Company-State

Philip J. Stern

Oxford University Press

This chapter argues that through the early eighteenth century, the Company continued to apply ideas and policies established in the previous century; however, retrained on new objects, these attitudes subtly began to shape the foundations for a Company empire in India. As Anglo-American piracy was eliminated by the 1720s, the political, legal, and marital regime the Company had established to confront it was retrained on Asian maritime rivals, most notably the Maratha tributary Kanhoji Angre, or Angria, and the so-called Muscat Arabs, or Qawasim, from the Arabian Coast. The old crime of interloping was increasingly applied to a much broader field, now clearly including Scottish and Irish subjects and even new European rivals, such as the Ostend and Swedish East India Companies. Competition with the Dutch and the Portuguese gave way to war and rivalry with the French, while the Company’s longstanding desire for a Mughal farman to confirm its rights and authority in India culminated in the embassy of John Surman to the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1717. Each of these new circumstances, though rooted in the past, would ultimately come to play a significant role in conditioning the territorial expansion of Company power by the mid-eighteenth century.

Keywords:   Kanhoji Angria, Qawasim, piracy, Ostend Company, Swedish East India Company, French East India Company, John Surman, Farrukhsiyar, farman

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