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Life and Work of Guru Arjan$
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Pashaura Singh

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195679212

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195679212.001.0001

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Crystallization of a Religious Tradition: The Sikh Panth

Crystallization of a Religious Tradition: The Sikh Panth

Chapter:
(p.172) 7 Crystallization of a Religious Tradition: The Sikh Panth
Source:
Life and Work of Guru Arjan
Author(s):

Pashaura Singh

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195679212.003.0007

Wilfred Cantwell Smith argues that it is somehow incorrect to refer to Guru Nanak as ‘the founder of Sikhism’. This chapter shows that the pattern of development and consolidation of the Sikh Panth is more continuous than what Smith claims. It considers the social constituency of the early Panth and how Guru Nanak's creative ideas and strategies at Kartarpur triggered the process of institutionalisation under his successors. It also considers Guru Nanak's views on ethical responsibility and argues that his ideology contained a singular appeal that might be understood in terms of ‘prophecy’ in Max Weber's sense of the term. The Adi Granth advocated the doctrine of the unity of Akal Purakh and was a decisive factor for Sikh self-definition. A radical egalitarianism in the Gurus' teachings was the crucial factor underlying the extensive Jat allegiance to the Panth. The chapter also discusses Max Weber's theoretical insights to understand the crystallization of the Sikh Panth during the tenure of the first five Gurus, particularly during the period of Guru Arjan.

Keywords:   Wilfred Cantwell Smith, Guru Nanak, Max Weber, Sikh Panth, Akal Purakh, Jat allegiance, Adi Granth, Guru Arjan

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