In every democratic country, visions, goals, and broad strategic directions are set by the politicians. In order to translate these visions, goals, and strategic directions of the politicians into effective policy priorities, a well-functioning policy formulation mechanism is necessary. In policymaking, it is the civil servants who translate the political visions, goals, and strategic directions into programmes and actions to achieve the desired changes in the real world. During the last twenty years, many countries, especially those that are members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), have reformed and modernized their policymaking process to make it compatible with the growing expectations of people. These reforms have taken place in several areas, including disciplining and contesting policies and setting up mechanisms for policy evaluation. The Indian government’s policymaking capacity has been generally weak.
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