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India–China Boundary Problem 1846–1947 - Oxford Scholarship Online
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India–China Boundary Problem 1846–1947

A.G. Noorani


Boundary issues have always occupied a central focus in the relations between India and China. Highlighting the role of history, policy, and diplomacy, this book traces the origins and development of the India–China boundary problem during the British Raj. It shows how British efforts to secure a defined boundary in the western sector began immediately after the creation of Jammu & Kashmir in 1846. However, in the eastern sector, such an exercise began only sixty-five years later, when a Chinese threat was perceived. Examining the role of the bureaucracy and diplomatic negotiations, the author ... More

Keywords: boundary problem, China, British Raj, Chinese threat, diplomatic negotiations, Indian, Indian Independence Act 1947, diplomatic history

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2011 Print ISBN-13: 9780198070689
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070689.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

A.G. Noorani, author

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End Matter

APPENDIX 1 Treaty between Tibet and Ladakh, 1842*

APPENDIX 2 Treaty between the British Government and the State of Lahore, 9 March 1846*

APPENDIX 3 Treaty of Amritsar, 16 March 1846*

APPENDIX 4 Diplomatic Exchanges with China for a Boundary Agreement, 1846–8*

APPENDIX 5 Vans Agnew’s Memorandum of 13 May 1847 to the East India Company on the Boundary Commission of 1847, 28 July 1847*

APPENDIX 6 Convention between Great Britain and China Relating to Sikkim and Tibet Signed at Calcutta, 17 March 1890*

APPENDIX 6A Note from the Tsungli Yamen dated 31 March 1894*

APPENDIX 7 Lieutenant Colonel Gore’s ‘Note on Aksai Chin’, 8 February 1897

APPENDIX 8 Francis Younghusband’s Note on the Boundary between Hunza and Chinese Turkestan, 1898*

APPENDIX 9 Sir John Ardagh’s Memorandum on ‘The Northern Frontier of India from the Pamirs to Tibet’, 1 January 1897*

APPENDIX 10 India Rejects the Ardagh Line*

APPENDIX 11 The Governor-General Lord Elgin Defines the Proposed Boundary to the Secretary of State for India, 27 October 1898

APPENDIX 12 Britain Formally Proposes a Boundary to China—The Ambassador Sir Claude MacDonald’s Note to the Tsungli Yamen, 14 March 1899

APPENDIX 12A Francis Younghusband’s ‘Note on the Boundary between Hunza and Chinese Territory’, 1904

APPENDIX 13 Governor-General Lord Curzon to the Secretary of State for India, 26 January 1905

APPENDIX 14 Lord Curzon to the Secretary of State for India, 10 August 1905

APPENDIX 15 C. Kirkpatrick’s ‘Note on the History of the Boundary of Kashmir between Ladakh and Kashgaria’, 8 June 1907

APPENDIX 16 Indo-Tibetan Exchange of Notes Defining the McMahon Line, 24–5 March 1914*

APPENDIX 17 Convention between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, Initialled at Simla, 27 April 1914*

APPENDIX 18 Statement by China’s Foreign Office Waichiapu on the Proceedings in Simla, 1914

APPENDIX 19 Foreign Secretary Denys Bray’s Letter to the India Office on the Boundary, 7 September 1917*

APPENDIX 20 China’s Memorandum Listing its Objections to the Simla Convention 1914, 30 May 1919*

APPENDIX 21 Extracts form Nehru’s Note to the Secretary-General and the Foreign Secretary, 1 July 1954*

APPENDIX 22 Correspondence between Jawaharlal Nehru and Zhon En-lai, 1959*