The chapter explains the concept, measurement and utility of bio-diversity as a resource and its intricate relationship with forest. It discusses the issues of economics of choice and economic valuation of biodiversity at conceptual level. It describes also the empirical situation in respect of biodiversity outlining both the global and the Indian scenario. In this context it explains the extent, causes and impact of the biodiversity loss in India due to the limit of eco-capacity. It further discusses the biodiversity conservation policy of India including India’s heritage of biodiversity conservation and traditional knowledge system associated with the bio-diversity resource of forest. Finally, the chapter ends with a discussion on how the anthropogenic stress on ecosystem is captured by the loss of bio-diversity which is represented by indicators like living planet index among other measures.
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