The chapter describes the concepts of ecological footprint, bio-capacity and ecological deficit for the measurement of pressures of the human economy on the biosphere. The ecological footprint gives the total direct and indirect requirement of land use in units of equivalent crop land with global average primary productivity for resource regeneration and waste absorption for the agricultural and industrial production and infrastructure development of an economy. The chapter also describes how the trade flows of open economies would require adjustments of the land requirement for imports and exports. It further gives the distribution of ecological foot print estimates for the different regions of the world in recent years and points to the dominance of the component of carbon foot print which is the forest land area that is additionally required for recycling the amount of carbon-dioxide that is in excess of the absorption by the existing forests, ocean and soil.
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