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Ecological Limits and Economic Development$
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Ramprasad Sengupta

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780198081654

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198081654.001.0001

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Human System: Population, Development, and Environment

Human System: Population, Development, and Environment

(p.105) 6 Human System: Population, Development, and Environment
Ecological Limits and Economic Development

Ramprasad Sengupta

Oxford University Press

The chapter discusses the relationship between population growth and the natural environment as mediated through economic development. It discusses both the classical and the neoclassical theories of relationship between population growth and economic development with varying implications of the importance of population growth and environmental resource limitations in development theory and policy. It analyses the relationship between fertility behaviour and economic growth and reviews the theory and evidence of demographic transition in terms of micro-economic logic of income – price based choice of family size, gender power structure, property rights, family institution and cultural norms at the different stages of development. Finally the chapter discusses the impact of population growth on environment by way of direct pressure on resource use due to reproductive externalities and focuses on the vicious circular relationship among high fertility, poverty, low female empowerment and over use of commons in the rural sector with its policy implications.

Keywords:   Population Growth, Fertility behaviour, Demographic Transition, Family Size, Gender-power relation, Property Rights, Family and Cultural norms, Population growth and Environment, Reproductive Externalities, Degradation of Common Resources, Vicious Circle of High Fertility, Urbanization and Environmental Degradation

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