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Interrogating India's ModernityDemocracy, Identity, and Citizenship$
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Surinder Jodhka

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780198092070

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198092070.001.0001

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Religion, Politics, and Governance in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Tanzania

Religion, Politics, and Governance in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Tanzania

A Comparative Framework

(p.135) 6 Religion, Politics, and Governance in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Tanzania
Interrogating India's Modernity

Gurharpal Singh

Oxford University Press

This essay provides a comparative historical understanding of the changing state–religion relationship in four countries of the South: India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Tanzania. It attempts to assess the experience of religious actors—faith-based organizations, religious political parties, and religious communities—in shaping, and being influenced, by the changing patterns of governance and development. Most approaches to the interface of religion and politics focus on the constitutional relationship between the church [religion(s)] and the state. While this is an appropriate point of departure, it rarely provides a meaningful insight into how religions meet the state. In contrast, the underlying tensions between religion and the state, between their divergent claims to the temporal and the sacred spheres of life, can be better appreciated through the sociological principle of differentiation. Differentiation ranges from high (completely separated and autonomous) to low (where religion and state are integrated), and can be consensual or conflictual.

Keywords:   religion, politics, governance in India, secular state, conflict, development, differentiation

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