Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Making of an Industrial SocietyWhickham 1560-1765$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

David Levine and Keith Wrightson

Print publication date: 1991

Print ISBN-13: 9780198200666

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198200666.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 29 November 2021

Living by the Benefit of Coales: The Anatomy of Industrial Society in Whickham

Living by the Benefit of Coales: The Anatomy of Industrial Society in Whickham

Chapter:
(p.152) 3 Living by the Benefit of Coales: The Anatomy of Industrial Society in Whickham
Source:
The Making of an Industrial Society
Author(s):

David Levine

Keith Wrightson

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198200666.003.0003

In the century after 1563, the world of the copyholders of the manor of Whickham was utterly transformed by industrial development. Long before the mid-seventeenth century, however, most of the inhabitants of Whickham were not copyholders, and never had been. While one outstanding social consequence of industrial growth had been the dissolution of the agrarian community of the sixteenth century, there are two others that also demand attention: the emergence of a new industrial population, and the creation of a new social structure. Both of these processes were in train by the turn of the sixteenth century and they proceeded alongside, and were influenced by, the struggles of the copyholders to adapt to the dynamic of economic change. It is only in the 1660s, however, that we are able to take stock of these developments in the parish as a whole – the opportunity being provided by the hearth-tax returns of the Restoration era. This chapter presents an anatomy of the population of the parish in the reign of Charles II – a population that had emerged in the course of three generations of drastic change and which lived, in William Gray's telling phrase, ‘by the benefit of coals’.

Keywords:   industrial development, industrial population, social structure, copyholders, Charles II, Whickham, seventeenth century, hearth-tax returns

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .