This chapter discusses the presuppositions from which the revisionist historiography originated. It notes that a religious–political dichotomy cannot be equated with a spiritual–secular one. The chapter explains that within revisionist historiography, it is impossible to overestimate the significance of Arminianism, both as a cause of Charles I's troubles but also as the pivot upon which a not inconsiderable part of the revisionist case rests. It explains that Carolinism represented the policy of Charles I to realize his highly personal notion of sacramental kingship by exploring his prerogative as Supreme Governor of the Church. The chapter argues that if the Caroline Church left its mark, it was in the realm of political ideology and practice rather than spirituality – its legacy was to be seen in the survival of opposition to Anglican moderation manifested in several events.
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