This chapter examines the controversy surrounding the religious origins of the British Civil War and the English revolution. It investigates to what extent Carolinism was innovatory within the context of previous Anglican history and of popular reception for Carolinism. The chapter explains the rationale for Charles I's subversion of the Jacobean polity, and explores the role that Carolinism – and religion generally – played in the collapse of Charles I's regime in 1640 and in the outbreak of hostilities two years later.
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