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The Return of the ArmadasThe Last Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain 1595-1603$
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R. B. Wernham

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204435

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204435.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 16 October 2021

The 1596 Armada

The 1596 Armada

(p.130) IX The 1596 Armada
The Return of the Armadas

R. B. Wernham

Oxford University Press

It is not surprising that the Earl of Essex failed to finish his discourse. The autumn of 1596 was an even more than usually busy time for him and his fellow Councillors. Amid all the inquisitions and recriminations about the Cadiz expedition, the Duke of Bouillon arrived with Henry IV's ratification of the Treaty of Greenwich. Queen Elizabeth I made a request for reimbursement of her expenses on the States' behalf. A week later, alarming news came from Ireland. In July, Essex had noted reports that there were forty-six ships in Lisbon and that new warships were being built at many places in Biscay. What hardly had been expected was that the Spanish Armada would put to sea so late in the season. On October 18, however, a severe gale from the south-west had caught the Armada against a lee shore. Seven of its galleons, twenty-five of its larger merchantmen, many smaller craft, and fully 2,000 men had been lost. Reliable news of this Spanish disaster began to reach England only in the last days of November.

Keywords:   Earl of Essex, England, Spain, Spanish Armada, Elizabeth I, Ireland, warships

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