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The Return of the ArmadasThe Last Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain 1595-1603$
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R. B. Wernham

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204435

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204435.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 25 October 2021

Plans and Preparations for 1597

Plans and Preparations for 1597

(p.143) X Plans and Preparations for 1597
The Return of the Armadas

R. B. Wernham

Oxford University Press

The alarms of the autumn of 1596 had made it abundantly clear that purely defensive action could not provide adequate answers to the threat of seaborne invasion from Spain. Such a threat was the only a really serious danger to England's (and Ireland's) security now that the Spanish-supported Catholic League had been broken in France and the Dutch were becoming a match for the Spanish army in the Netherlands. The problem for the English defence was not that they lacked information about the preparations and movements of the Spanish Armada, but that they could seldom receive it in time. Sir Robert Cecil, especially after his formal appointment as Secretary in July 1596, had been rebuilding a network of intelligencers in the Spanish Netherlands, Italy, and south-western France. Alongside this there was the rival network that the Earl of Essex with Anthony Bacon's help, had been building for even longer.

Keywords:   England, Spain, Spanish Armada, defence, Netherlands, France, Earl of Essex, Robert Cecil

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