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The Return of the ArmadasThe Last Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain 1595-1603$
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R. B. Wernham

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204435

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204435.001.0001

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Gales and Frustrations

Gales and Frustrations

(p.159) XI Gales and Frustrations
The Return of the Armadas

R. B. Wernham

Oxford University Press

The fleet that assembled in the Downs during the latter half of June 1597 was made up of sixteen of Queen Elizabeth I's ships, including thirty-three flyboats to carry the 4,000 troops levied in England. The fleet was organized into three squadrons under the Earl of Essex, Lord Thomas Howard, and Sir Walter Ralegh. It was joined on June 25 by a fourth squadron of ten Dutch warships, and fifteen flyboats carrying the 1,000 English troops drawn from the Queen's forces in the Netherlands. The Dutch squadron had been meant to assemble with the rest on June 12, but had been delayed by contrary winds. Essex's first and primary purpose must be to destroy the Spanish Armada prepared by Philip II to invade England or Ireland, or to take Brest and conquer Brittany, endangering the Channel Isles, or to join forces with the Cardinal Archduke in the Low Countries. The Queen's chief aim in this voyage was to divert Spain's forces from England and Ireland, and also to make some profit.

Keywords:   Elizabeth I, England, Spain, Spanish Armada, Earl of Essex, Thomas Howard, Walter Ralegh, Netherlands, Ireland, Low Countries

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