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The Return of the ArmadasThe Last Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain 1595-1603$
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R. B. Wernham

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204435

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204435.001.0001

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Cumberland and van der Does

Cumberland and van der Does

Chapter:
(p.251) XVI Cumberland and van der Does
Source:
The Return of the Armadas
Author(s):

R. B. Wernham

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204435.003.0017

In 1598, England had an opportunity almost as good as that in 1589 to strike a decisive blow at Spain. The dying Philip II, now suffering a variety of illnesses, wanted to secure peace with France and a settlement with the Netherlands regarding Infanta Isabella and Archduke Albert. Spain's Atlantic naval forces were very slow to recover from the autumn disasters of 1596 and 1597. Elizabeth I, however, quite apart from being attracted by the opening possibility of peace and distracted by the rebellion in Ireland, had learnt from repeated experience how incompetent her ‘men of war’ were to seize decisively even the most golden opportunities. So throughout 1598 and most of 1599, she left the sea almost exclusively to private enterprise. Here by far the most notable undertaking in 1598 was that of the Earl of Cumberland, who would eventually spearhead an English expedition to Spain. The Dutch also sent a large fleet, led by Pieter van der Does, against Spain.

Keywords:   England, Spain, France, Netherlands, Elizabeth I, Pieter van der Does, Earl of Cumberland, war, expedition

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