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The Return of the ArmadasThe Last Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain 1595-1603$
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R. B. Wernham

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204435

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204435.001.0001

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The ‘Invisible Armada’ and Trouble with Neutrals

The ‘Invisible Armada’ and Trouble with Neutrals

(p.263) XVII The ‘Invisible Armada’ and Trouble with Neutrals
The Return of the Armadas

R. B. Wernham

Oxford University Press

Pieter van der Does's expedition, like the Earl of Cumberland's in the previous year, was not entirely without effect. It drew upon itself the attention of Spain's naval forces and in the end diverted them from attempting anything in 1599 against England or taking advantage of the troubles in Ireland. The new Spanish King Philip III and his ministers would willingly have done both those things. With the Dutch fleet gone off to the Canaries, leaving the gathering armada's way to England wide open, it must have appeared to Elizabeth I and her ministers disturbingly like a rerun of 1597. However, the Treaty of Vervins turned France into a neutral zone, creating tensions between England and France, and indeed between the Dutch and the French. This chapter looks at England's anxieties over the ‘Invisible Armada’ and its problems with neutral states and cities over trade with Spain.

Keywords:   Invisible Armada, Spain, England, France, Netherlands, Elizabeth I, Pieter van der Does, Philip III, trade

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