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The Return of the ArmadasThe Last Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain 1595-1603$
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R. B. Wernham

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204435

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204435.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 April 2021

Prologue: 1593–1594

Prologue: 1593–1594

(p.7) I Prologue: 1593–1594
The Return of the Armadas

R. B. Wernham

Oxford University Press

The conversion of Henry IV of France to Catholicism in July 1593 gave Elizabeth I and her ministers serious cause to review their continental policies. Many of its consequences were certainly to England's advantage. The collapse of Spain's ally, the Catholic League in France, if it did not entirely restore the military balance between Spain and the French monarchy, at least removed the conflict from the heart of France to its frontiers. At the same time, the distraction of Spanish troops and resources after 1589 towards intervention in France had allowed the Dutch by the summer of 1594 to clear most of the northeastern Netherlands right up to the German frontier, thus making their conflict with Spain now likewise a war fought mainly on their southern frontier. All this made it possible for England by the end of 1593 to withdraw its troops from Normandy and, after the capture of Fort Crozon in November 1594 ended the Spanish threat to Brest, from Brittany as well.

Keywords:   Henry IV, France, Catholicism, Elizabeth I, England, Spain, war, Netherlands, Normandy

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