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The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume IV: The Twentieth Century$

Judith Brown and Wm Roger Louis

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780198205647

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205647.001.0001

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(p.712) Chronology

(p.712) Chronology

Source:
The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume IV: The Twentieth Century
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1899

SOUTH AFRICAN (BOER) WAR

1900

Conservative Government re-elected

Second year of Boer War; relief of Mafeking; annexation of Transvaal

Witwatersrand Native Labour Association

Revocation of Royal Niger Company Charter; Colonial Office takes over administrative responsibility for Nigeria; British conquest of Northern Nigeria (to 1903)

British invasion and annexation of Asante (Gold Coast)

Buganda Agreement recognizes rights of Kabaka and chiefs under Uganda Protectorate

1901

Death of Queen Victoria

British concentration camps in South Africa

Persian oil concession to Australian W. K. D’Arcy

1902

Coronation of Edward VII Third Colonial Conference

Treaty of Vereeniging ends Boer War

1903

Joseph Chamberlain launches campaign for Tariff Reform

1904

Anglo-French Entente Cordiale

Colonial Office takes over administration of Nyasaland, Uganda, East Africa Protectorate, and Somaliland

1905

Aliens Act

Constitutional Revolution in Persia

Colonial Office takes over administration of Uganda Protectorate and East Africa Protectorate (Kenya)

(p.713)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

1899

Boxer uprising in China

1900

Commonwealth of Australia

Australian Immigration Restriction Act

End of Boxer rising; imposition of Boxer indemnity

1901

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Major reform efforts by Ch’ing dynasty tacitly supported by Britain

1902

Settlement of Alaska Boundary dispute with United States

1903

1904

British partition of Bengal; resistance by Indian National Congress

1905

(p.714)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1906

Liberal Government wins elections

Formation of Labour Party

Algeçiras Conference

HMS Dreadnought launched

Lagos and Southern Nigeria amalgamated as Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria

Self-government in Transvaal

Zulu rebellion suppressed

1907

Colonial Conferences become institutionalized as Imperial Conferences meeting every 4 years;

Term Dominion adopted for self-governing colonies

Dominions Department created within Colonial Office

1908

Oil discovered in Persia

1909

Creation of Foreign Section of Secret Service Bureau (becomes M16) and Military Section (becomes M15)

Anglo-Persian Oil Company formed to exploit D’Arcy Concession

1910

Liberal Government re-elected

Royal Colonial Institute Emigration Conference

Union of South Africa

1911

Winston Churchill First Lord of Admiralty

Official Secrets Act

Imperial Conference provides for direct consultation with Dominions on international agreements

Extension of railway in Nigeria from Lagos to Kano

1912

Sinking of Titanic

Native Recruiting Corporation established in South Africa

Churchill converts Royal Navy from coal to oil

Founding of South African Native National Congress, subsequently known as the African National Congress (ANC)

1913

South Africa Natives Land Act

Language tests for immigrants in South Africa

Formation of National Party in South Africa

(p.715)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

All-India Muslim League established

Young Men’s Buddhist Association founded in Burma

Expiration of last Queensland indentured labour contracts

1906

New Zealand becomes self-governing Dominion

M. K. Gandhi launches first non-violent resistance campaign against anti-Indian racial policies in South Africa

Indian National Congress split between Gokhale’s moderates and Tilak’s extremists

1907

1908

Anglo-Siamese Treaty cedes rights over Malay states of Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Trengganu to Britain; formation of Federal Council in Federated Malay States

Morley-Minto Reforms in India

Creation of Canadian Department of External Affairs

1909

Mexican Revolution begins Canadian Immigration Act

1910

Coronation durbar of George V in Delhi

Chinese Revolution; Ch’ing dynasty overthrown

Canadian election on reciprocity with United States

1911

English translation of Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali; Tagore wins Nobel Prize for Literature

1912

China obtains Reorganization Loan, last major international loan to China under British financial leadership

1913

(p.716)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

FIRST WORLD WAR

1914

Home Rule Act; crisis over Ireland

Outbreak of First World War

British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act

Unification of Northern and Southern Nigeria

British Government obtains 51% share of Anglo-Persian Oil Company

British Protectorate in Egypt

1915

British and German blockades

German Zeppelin attacks on Britain

Battle of Cambrai; first successful use of tanks in battle by the British

German submarine sinks Lusitania; US outcry against submarine warfare

Afrikaner revolt suppressed

Chilembwe rising put down in Nyasaland

Unsuccessful Allied naval attack on Dardanelles followed by Anzac landings on Gallipoli

Ottomans invade Aden, occupy Lahej

Ottoman victory at Ctesiphon; siege of Kut

Campaign against German East Africa; British forces take Lake Tanganyika

1916

Easter rising suppressed in Dublin

Battle of Jutland

Battle of the Somme

Lloyd George Prime Minister

Surrender of Allied forces in Kut

Second offensive by British and Indian troops into Mesopotamia

Sharif Hussein of Mecca revolts against Ottomans, proclaimed King of the Arabs

T. E. Lawrence liaison officer to army of Prince Faisal

Secret Sykes-Picot Agreement on future of Ottoman Asia

1917

Imperial War Conference resolves to admit India and to consider constitution of the Empire after the war

British forces take Jerusalem

(p.717)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

New Zealand forces occupy German Samoa

Australian forces take German New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, and Solomons

Japanese troops occupy German colonies north of the equator and points in Shantung

Gandhi leaves South Africa for India, supports British war effort

Malay state of Johore accepts British General Adviser

Tampico incident; American occupation of Vera Cruz

Resignation of Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta

Panama Canal opens

Battle of the Falkland Islands

1914

Sinhalese-Muslim riots in Ceylon; detention of Sinhalese political Leaders

Gandhi returns to India

1915

Home Rule Leagues established in India

Lucknow Pact between Muslim League and Indian National Congress

China descends into era of warlordism

Pancho Villa raids Columbus, New Mexico; expedition by US General John J. Pershing into northern Mexico

Yrigoyen’s Radical Party takes power in Argentina

1916

Montagu Declaration on responsible government in India

Government of India prohibits indentured labour contracts

Mexico adopts new ‘revolutionary’ Constitution

Labour mobilization and strikes in Latin America (to 1920)

1917

(p.718)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1917

Creation of Imperial War Cabinet

Bread rationing in Britain

British royal family renounces German titles

Balfour Declaration promises British support of ‘National Home for the Jews’ in Palestine

1918

Royal Air Force created

Armistice ends First World War

British intervention in Russian civil war

‘Coupon Election’ splits Liberal Party Labour Party emerges as major opposition to Conservative Party

Sinn Fein victory in December elections in Ireland

British take Damascus, Beirut, Horns, and Aleppo

British deport Saad Zaghlul Pasha, head of nationalist Wafd Party, from Egypt

1919

Irish war for independence (to 1921)

Paris Peace Conference; creation of League of Nations and Mandates System

Creation of overseas settlement schemes

South Africa granted South-West Africa as class C Mandate

Egyptian uprising against British Protectorate; Milner Mission investigates causes

Abortive Anglo-Persian Agreement precipitates anti-British protests in Persia

First Pan-African Congress held in Paris

1920

San Remo Conference assigns Mandates

Government of Ireland Act establishes Parliament in Northern Ireland

East Africa Protectorate becomes Colony of Kenya

Britain receives Mandate for Palestine and Iraq

Milner Mission recommends early independence for Egypt with conditions

Nationalist uprising against British in

Iraq; first extensive use of aircraft in counter-insurgency operations

Formation of National Congress of British West Africa

1921

Imperial Conference rejects need for a constitutional conference

First meeting of Northern Ireland Parliament; truce between British and Irish forces; Anglo-Irish Treaty partitions Ireland, establishes southern 26 counties as Dominion of Irish Free State

Settlers’ Plot in Kenya

Reza Khan coup d’etat in Iran

British place Prince Faisal on Iraqi Throne

(p.719)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

China enters war against Germany

Germany seeks aid of Mexico and Japan against United States

United States declares war on Germany

1917

US President Woodrow Wilson’s ‘Fourteen Points’

Mexico nationalizes oilfields

Mutiny of battalions of the West Indies Regiment at Taranto, Italy

1918

May Fourth Movement in China protests against imperialism; calls for cultural reform

Government of India Act establishes principle of diarchy

Rowlatt Act against sedition

Amritsar Massacre

Third Afghan War

Ceylon National Congress established

Riots and disturbances in Jamaica, British Honduras, and Trinidad

1919

Gandhi supports Muslim Khilafat Movement; launches non- cooperation campaign (to 1922)

Formation of General Council of Buddhist Associations in Burma

Sinhalese-Tamil discord over constitutional reforms in Ceylon (to 1924)

1920

Washington Conference (to 1922); end of Anglo-Japanese Alliance; limitations on naval strengths

1921

(p.720)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1922

Lloyd George replaced as Prime Minister by Conservative Bonar Law after Chanak crisis

Empire Settlement Act

Provisional government in Ireland; new constitution adopted; Irish civil war (to 1923)

Lugard’s, The Dual Mandate

White miners’ strike in South Africa; martial law declared

Creation of Transjordan under Emir Abdullah

Britain unilaterally recognizes Egyptian independence but reserves control of defence, Suez Canal, and the Sudan

Chanak crisis, Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) resists efforts to dismember Turkey Dominions divide over support for Britain in case of war in Turkey

Limited franchises for elections to Legislative Councils in some British West African coastal towns

Southern Rhodesian referendum rejects union with South Africa

1923

Southern Rhodesia achieves self-government

Devonshire White Paper on Indians in Kenya asserts doctrine of Native Paramountcy

1924

First short-lived Labour government under Ramsay MacDonald followed by Conservative government under Stanley Baldwin

Colonial Office takes over Northern Rhodesia

Ibn Saud captures Mecca

Egyptian nationalists assassinate Sir Lee Stack, Governor-General of the Sudan and Sirdar of the Egyptian Army; abortive mutiny in Khartoum suppressed by British troops; Egyptians evicted from Sudan

1925

Dominions Office established

Establishment of International Institute of African Languages and Cultures in London

Sir Donald Cameron institutes Indirect Rule in Tanganyika

1926

General Strike in Britain

Imperial Conference of 1926 agrees on definition of Dominion Status

1927

Eamon de Valera enters Irish Dail

Sir John Maffey institutes Indirect Rule in the Sudan

Prince of Wales College opens in Gold Coast

(p.721)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

Planning begins for Singapore Naval Base

Introduction of elected unofficial members in Legislative Councils of Trinidad and Tobago, the Windward Islands, and Dominica

1924

May Thirtieth Movement in China, Chinese protestors shot in Shanghai, countrywide anti-British strikes and Boycotts

1925

Chiang Kai-shek begins Nationalist reunification of China

1926

Split between Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party

Rendition of British Concession at Hankow

Doughmore Commission on Ceylon constitution (to 1928)

Exchange of Legations between Canada and the United States

1927

(p.722)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1928

Muslim Brotherhood established in Egypt

Takoradi Harbour opens in Gold Coast

1929

Wall Street crash leads to Great Depression

Second Labour Government

Colonial Development Act

Wailing Wall incidents; Arab-Jewish riots in Palestine

The ‘women’s war’, anti-tax protests, in South-East Nigeria

1930

Passfield White Paper on Palestine limits Jewish immigration

1931

National Government under Ramsay MacDonald

Pay cuts in Royal Navy precipitate Invergordon Mutiny

Run on sterling; Britain abandons gold standard

Statute of Westminster provides for constitutional autonomy of Dominions, lays down mechanism for achieving Dominion Status

Greek nationalists revolt in Cyprus

Formation of Irgun Zvai Leumi, Zionist extremist organization

Select Parliamentary Committee advises against closer union in East Africa

1932

National Government under MacDonald re-elected

Ottawa Conference establishes Imperial Preference system

De Valera government in Ireland; Anglo-Irish Economic War (to 1938)

Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Iraqi independence

1933

Hitler comes to power in Germany

South Africa forced off gold standard

Formation of Purified National Party under D. F. Malan in South Africa

(p.723)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

Chiang Kai-shek completes nominal unification of China

Simon Commission undertakes constitutional review in India

British High Commissioner appointed in Ottawa

Mexican President-elect Obregon assassinated

Introduction of Crown Colony government in British Guiana

1928

Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India, declares British goal for India is Dominion Status

Establishment in Mexico of governing Revolutionary National Party (PRI)

1929

Red Shirts campaign opens decade-long insurgency on North-West Frontier

Gandhi leads Salt March, major civil disobedience campaign

Round Table Conference on India in London

Formation of Malayan Communist Party

Hsaya San rebellion in Burma (to 1932)

Return of British leased territory of Wei-hai-wei to Chinese sovereignty

Revolution in Argentina brings José Uriburu to power as President

Revolution ends ‘Old Republic’ and brings Getulio Vargas to power as President of Brazil

Onset of Depression precipitates military coups in Latin America

1930

Gandhi-Irwin talks

’Truce’ ends non-cooperation

London Round Table Conference on India

Mukden Incident; Japanese army occupies Manchuria

1931

Shanghai Incident, Japanese attack Chinese in Shanghai

Gandhi resumes civil disobedience campaign, 1932–34; Indian National Congress declared illegal; Gandhi jailed

Conservative, Anglophile Concordancia government comes to power in Argentina

1932

China regains effective tariff autonomy

Roca-Runciman Pact between Britain and Argentina

1933

(p.724)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1934

Formation of Southern Rhodesia African National Congress

1935

Conservative Stanley Baldwin replaces MacDonald as Prime Minister; National Government under Baldwin re-elected

Reza Shah officially changes name of Persia to Iran

African miners’ strike on Northern Rhodesia Copper Belt

Italian invasion of Ethiopia

1936

Edward VIII accedes to British throne; abdication crisis; accession of George VI

Germany reoccupies Rhineland

King Farouk ascends Egyptian throne

Anglo-Egyptian Treaty

Arab Higher Committee formed in Palestine; Arab Revolt; Peel Commission on Palestine

1937

Baldwin succeeded as Prime Minister by Conservative Neville Chamberlain

Empire Settlement Act renewed

Ireland adopts new constitution

Margery Perham’s Native Administration in Nigeria

Aden becomes British Crown Colony

Nnamdi Azikiwe founds West African Pilot in Nigeria

Cocoa farmers in Gold Coast and Nigeria launch trade boycott (to 1938)

(Bledisloe) Royal Commission on Rhodesias and Nyasaland (to 1939)

1938

Czechoslovak crisis; Britain and France agree to dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in Munich Agreement

Lord Hailey’s An African Survey

SECOND WORLD WAR

1939

Outbreak of Second World War; Ireland remains neutral

Start of bulk-purchasing from the Colonies

Failure of London Conference on Palestine

1939 White Paper on Palestine for curtailment of Jewish immigration

1940

German invasion of Europe

Churchill becomes Prime Minister

Establishment of Fabian Colonial Bureau

Stern Gang, anti-British Jewish terrorist organization, established in Palestine

Strikes by European and African miners on Northern Rhodesia Copper Belt

(p.725)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

Japan repudiates Washington Treaties limiting armaments

International Rubber Regulation Agreement

Commission of Government established in Newfoundland

Strikes and disturbances in British Caribbean (to 1939)

1934

Government of India Act provides for provincial self-government; separates Burma from India

Canadian-American Trade Agreement

1935

1936

Indian National Congress sweeps elections; forms governments in 7 provinces

Ba Maw government in Burma

Full-scale war between Japan and China

1937

Singapore Naval Base completed but on reduced scale

Anglo-American-Canadian trade agreements

Nationalization of British and American oil companies in Mexico

Formation of Bustamante Industrial Trades Union and People’s National Party in Jamaica

Appointment of West India Royal Commission

1938

Viceroy declares India at war without consultation with Indian leaders

Construction of Burma Road

1939

Indian National Congress resigns from provincial governments in India

Muslim League’s ‘Pakistan’ Resolution

Canadian-US Ogdensburg Agreement

Anglo-American bases for destroyers deal

1940

(p.726)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1940

Colonial Development and Welfare Act extends scope of 1929 Act, includes social welfare as well as economic development programmes

1941

Hailey Report, ‘Native Administration and Political Development’ criticizes Indirect Rule

Britain declares war on Japan after attack on Pearl Harbor

British forces capture Ethiopia from Italians; reinstate Emperor Haile Selassie

British and Soviet forces divide and occupy Iran

1942

Beveridge Report on Social Security

Labour Party Charter of Freedom for Colonial Peoples

Abraham Stern killed by British forces in Palestine

Battle of el-Alamein; Allied forces take French Morocco and Algeria

Africans appointed to Executive Councils in Nigeria, the Gold Coast, and Sierra Leone

1943

Casablanca Conference between Churchill and Roosevelt; Cairo Conference between Churchill, Roosevelt and Chiang Kai-shek; Tehran Conference between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin

1944

D-Day, Allied cross-Channel invasion of Europe

Stern Gang assassinates British Minister of State Lord Moyne

Creation of National Council for Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC)

Formation of Nyasaland ANC

1945

United Nations Organization Established

Yalta Conference

War in Europe ends

Postdam Conference

Labour government under C. R. Attlee

Fifth Pan-African Congress held in Manchester

Irgun renews terrorist campaign against British in Palestine

Jewish Agency steps up illegal Immigration

Arab League established

1946

United States lends Britain $3.75bn

Canada lends Britain $1.25bn

Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine

Irgun blows up King David Hotel in Jerusalem

Transjordan becomes independent (subsequently renamed Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1949)

(p.727)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

1940

Civil disobedience campaign of protest against war continues in India

Japanese forces invade Philippines and take Hong Kong

Lend-Lease; Atlantic Charter

Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; United States enters Second World War

1941

Cripps Mission to India

‘Quit India’ movement; Gandhi and Congress leaders jailed

Japanese capture Philippines, overrun Malay Peninsula, capturing Singapore on 15 February; occupy Dutch East Indies; invade Burma

Australia adopts Statute of Westminster

Anglo-American Caribbean Commission

1942

Famine in Bengal

Abrogation of ‘unequal treaties’ between Western Powers and China

1943

Canberra Pact between Australia and New Zealand

Bretton Woods Conference establishes World Bank and International Monetary Fund

Introduction of new constitution with universal adult suffrage in Jamaica

1944

Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Japan surrenders, ending Second World War

Indian National Congress leaders released, negotiations begin for Indian independence

Harry Truman becomes US President

Publication of Royal Commission Report on West Indies

1945

Civil war resumes in China between Communists and Nationalists (to 1949)

White Rajah Sir Charles Brooke cedes Sarawak to British Crown

Juan Perón elected President of Argentina

1946

(p.728)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1946

New constitutions implemented in Nigeria, Gold Coast, and the Gambia

1947

Greek civil war breaks out (to 1949)

Britain warns United States it can no longer meet its commitment to defend Middle East

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

Secretary of State for the Colonies Creech Jones issues ‘Local Government’ dispatch

Britain announces withdrawal from Palestine; United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) proposes partition

1948

Marshall Plan for reconstruction of Europe

British Nationality Act

Ireland repeals External Relations Act, leaves Commonwealth

Formation of Northern Rhodesia ANC

National Party government in South Africa; beginning of apartheid

British withdrawal from Palestine; State of Israel proclaimed; first Arab-Israeli war

Riots in Gold Coast

University colleges established in Nigeria and Gold Coast

1949

Britain devalues sterling

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Declaration of Irish Republic

Kwame Nkrumah founds Convention People’s Party (CPP) in Gold Coast

1950

Establishment of Congress of Peoples Against Imperialism

KOREAN WAR

1951

Conservative government under

Churchill elected

Prime Minister Musaddiq nationalizes Anglo-Iranian Oil Company

Egypt abrogates 1936 Treaty; Egyptian nationalists attack British troops in Suez Canal Zone

Libya becomes independent

(p.729)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

1946

Partition and independence of India and Pakistan

Fighting between India and Pakistan over Kashmir (to 1949)

Burma becomes independent republic outside British Commonwealth

New Zealand adopts Statute of Westminster

Montego Bay Conference on Closer Association of British West Indies

Canadian Citizenship Act

Australia and New Zealand resume assisted passage schemes

Nationalization of British railways in Argentina

1947

Gandhi assassinated

Last British troops withdraw from India

Ceylon becomes independent (renamed Sri Lanka 1972)

Communist insurgency in Malaya, State of Emergency declared

Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King cancels Canada–US free trade negotiations

1948

India becomes republic within Commonwealth

Establishment of People’s Republic of China

Expulsion of British business from China (to 1954)

Newfoundland enters Canadian Confederation

Canada ends appeals to Privy Council

1949

Britain recognizes People’s Republic of China

Colombo Conference of Commonwealth ministers leads to Colombo Plan for economic development in South and South-East Asia (1951–1977)

1950

Pakistani Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan assassinated; Pakistan enters period of civil disorder

Anzus Pact between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States

Canada resumes assisted passage scheme

1951

(p.730)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1951

CPP wins elections in Gold Coast (the first in Africa under universal suffrage); Nkrumah becomes ‘Leader of Government Business’

1952

Elizabeth II succeeds to British throne

Britain conducts first atomic tests

Empire Settlement Act renewed

Free Officers movement overthrows Egyptian monarchy, establishes republic

Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya; State of Emergency declared (to 1959)

Nkrumah accorded title of Prime Minister in Gold Coast

1953

Creation of Central African Federation combining Northern and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland

Trial of Jomo Kenyatta in Kenya

Musaddiq overthrown as Prime Minister of Iran in coup engineered by CIA and MI6

1954

Establishment of the Movement for Colonial Freedom in London

State of Emergency proclaimed in Pakistan

In Egypt Nasser assumes power; Anglo-Egyptian Agreement on withdrawal from Suez

Gold Coast elections result in formation of all-African Cabinet and elected Assembly

Nigerian constitution creates federal structure uniting Northern, Eastern, and Western Nigeria, along with the UN Trust Territory of the Cameroons and the federal territory of Lagos

1955

Conservative Government re-elected Anthony Eden succeeds Churchill as Prime Minister

Britain joins Baghdad Pact

Egypt concludes Czech arms deal

EOKA (National Organization of Cypriot Fighters) led by Colonel Georgios Grivas attacks British troops in Cyprus, demanding enosis, or unity, with Greece (to 1959)

1956

Sudan becomes independent republic

British deport Archbishop Makarios, Cypriot nationalist leader, to the Seychelles

(p.731)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

1951

1952

Second Conference on Federation of West Indies in London

Adult suffrage in British Guiana; suspension of Guiana’s constitution

1953

United States and Canada agree to build Distant Early Warning (DEW) line of radar stations to protect against air attack over the Arctic

1954

Australia and New Zealand announce contributions to Commonwealth Far East Strategic Reserve

Bandung Conference of ‘non-aligned’ nations

Baling talks between Malayan Chief Minister Tunku Abdel Rahman and Chin Peng, head of Malayan Communist Party Pakistan

Argentine military overthrows President Perón

1955

becomes Islamic republic

1956

(p.732)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1956

Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal Company; Suez Crisis

Queen Elizabeth II visits Nigeria

1957

Harold Macmillan succeeds Eden as Prime Minister

Gold Coast becomes independent state of Ghana, remains within Commonwealth

Self-government in Eastern and Western Nigeria

New constitution adopted for Sierra Leone

1958

Sterling becomes fully convertible

Iraqi revolution establishes republic

1959

Conservative Government re-elected

Emergency declared in Central Africa

Devlin Report on Nyasaland Emergency debated in Parliament

Hola Camp atrocities in Kenya denounced in House of Commons

1960

Independence of Nigeria and Cyprus

Lancaster House Conference recommends majority rule in Kenya

Beginning of Congo crisis

Harold Macmillan makes ‘Wind of Change’ speech to South African Parliament

Sharpeville Massacre in South Africa

1961

First British application to enter the European Economic Community (EEC) (rejected)

Independence of Sierra Leone and Tanganyika

South Africa becomes republic and leaves Commonwealth

1962

Commonwealth Settlement Act and Commonwealth Immigrants Act

Independence of Uganda

Nelson Mandela, leader of ANC, arrested and imprisoned in South Africa

1963

Nigeria becomes a republic

Independence of Kenya and Zanzibar

Dissolution of Central African Federation

1964

Labour Government elected under Harold Wilson

Full-scale insurgency against British in Aden

Independence of Nyasaland (as Malawi), Northern Rhodesia (as Zambia), and Malta

(p.733)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

Malayan independence talks in London

1956

Independence of Malaya

Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement

North American Air Defence Agreement (NORAD) between United States and Canada

1957

1958

Singapore achieves internal self- government under Chief Minister Lee Kuan Yew

1959

Malayan Emergency ends

1960

1961

Independence of Western Samoa

Indo-Chinese War

Canada ends ethnic discrimination in immigration

Independence of Jamaica and Trinidad

1962

1963

Death of Nehru

1964

(p.734)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1964

Tanganyika and Zanzibar amalgamate as Tanzania

Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment in South Africa

1965

Creation of Commonwealth Secretariat in London

Independence of Gambia, and Lesotho

Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) by minority white government in Southern Rhodesia

1966

Labour Government re-elected

Military coup in Nigeria

Independence of Basutoland (as Lesotho) and Bechuanaland (as Botswana)

1967

Collapse of South Arabian Federation

British evacuate Aden

Julius Nyerere issues Arusha Declaration calling for economic self-sufficiency and socialism in Tanzania

Civil war in Nigeria; declaration of independent republic of Biafra

1968

British decide to withdraw militarily from ‘East of Suez’

Commonwealth Immigrants Act

Beginning of the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland

British announce withdrawal from the Persian Gulf by the end of 1971

Independence of Mauritius and Swaziland

1969

British troops sent to Northern Ireland

1970

Conservative Government elected

Britain provides military support for Oman in Dhofar

Nigerian civil war ends with Biafran collapse

1971

Immigration Act in Britain

1972

Sterling area ends; sterling allowed to float

Commonwealth Settlement Act expires

Britain assumes direct rule over Northern Ireland

Pakistan withdraws from Commonwealth

1973

Britain enters European Economic Community

(p.735)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

1964

Cook Islands achieve self-government in association with New Zealand

Second Indo-Pakistan War over Kashmir (to 1966)

Canadian Maple Leaf flag introduced

1965

Independence of Guiana (Guyana) and Barbados

1966

1967

Nauru achieves independence

1968

1969

Independence of Fiji

Fiji, Tonga, and Western Samoa join Commonwealth

1970

South Pacific Forum created

Civil war in Pakistan; India intervenes;

third Indo-Pakistan War East Pakistan becomes independent

state of Bangladesh

1971

1972

Australia ends ethnic discrimination in immigration rules

1973

(p.736)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1974

Labour government elected

1975

1978

1979

Conservative government elected under Margaret Thatcher

Lord Mountbatten of Burma and grandson killed by Provisional IRA

Lancaster House Agreement on Rhodesia

1980

Rhodesia achieves majority rule as independent state of Zimbabwe

Tanzanian forces invade Uganda, overthrow dictator Idi Amin

1982

Falklands War

1983

Conservative government re-elected

1984

1985

Anglo-Irish Agreement gives Dublin role in Northern Ireland negotiations

1986

1987

Conservative government re-elected

1989

Nelson Mandela begins talks with South African President de Klerk

1990

Margaret Thatcher replaced by John Major as Conservative Prime Minister

Mandela freed, anti-apartheid political organizations legalized in South Africa; negotiations for final end of apartheid

(p.737)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

Niue achieves self-government in association with New Zealand; joins South Pacific Forum

1974

Tuvalu separates from Gilbert and Ellice Islands

Waitangi Tribunal created in New Zealand to address Maori concerns

1975

Independence of Tuvalu (Ellice Islands) and the Solomon Islands

1978

Independence of Kiribati (Gilbert Islands)

1979

Independence of Vanuatu (New Hebrides)

1980

Introduction of Canadian Constitution

Falklands War

1982

1983

Anglo-Chinese agreement on restoration of Hong Kong to China in 1997

1984

1985

Constitution Acts repealing Statute of Westminster in Australia and New Zealand

1986

New Zealand Immigration Act

Fiji leaves Commonwealth

1987

Canadian–American Free Trade Agreement takes effect

1989

Canada joins Organization of American States

1990

(p.738)

Year

Britain and General

Africa and the Middle East

1992

Conservative government re-elected under John Major

1994

IRA ceasefire in Northern Ireland;

British officials meet Sinn Fein leaders

First non-racial elections in South Africa; Nelson Mandela becomes President

Mozambique joins Commonwealth

1996

IRA ceasefire ends

1997

Labour government under Tony Blair

IRA resumes ceasefire; Sinn Fein joins peace talks

1998

Belfast Agreement on Northern Ireland ratified by popular referendum

(p.739)

Asia and the Pacific

The Americas

Year

1992

1994

1996

End of British rule in Hong Kong

1997

1998

(p.740)