For France's Napoleon Bonaparte, Germany's Adolf Hitler, and other dictators, forced disarmament was an interim measure while they decided whether to destroy defeated states completely. Victorious democracies have forced their enemies to disarm in order to justify the losses their own people have suffered and to try to preserve their security. However, such efforts have often made the vanquished more bitter, and their anger and frustration have grown over the years. Aside from its political disadvantages, forced disarmament can damage the environment, as seen in the demilitarization of Dunkirk in the eighteenth century, the allied policy of dropping chemical weapons at the end of the Second World War, and the United Nations disarmament of Iraq. This chapter discusses the advantages and disadvantages of forced disarmament, as well as its ramifications, the resistance and co-operation generated by disarmament in defeated states, and literature on peace-making.
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