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European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914$
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R. D. Anderson

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780198206606

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206606.001.0001

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Germany: Academic Golden Age

Germany: Academic Golden Age

(p.151) 10 Germany: Academic Golden Age
European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914

R. D. Anderson

Oxford University Press

The unification of Germany in 1871 left universities under the control of individual states, but they had common national characteristics, and Prussian influence was strong. Expansion of university numbers enlarged the academic profession, though there were divisions between the established professors and the growing number without full chairs. The growth of the natural sciences was strong, and connected with the success of German industry. Some growth was directed into the more practical Technische Hochschulen. In the late 19th century, these sought the same rights as universities to award doctorates, with a parallel debate over whether modern as well as classical secondary education should qualify for university entry. By 1900 the modernists had got their way. The foundation of the Kaiser–Wilhelm–Gesellschaft in 1911 marked the arrival of 20th-century ‘big science’, and a departure from the old idea of the union of research and teaching.

Keywords:   Germany, Prussia, Technische Hochschulen, Kaiser–Wilhelm–Gesellschaft, big science

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