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European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914$
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R. D. Anderson

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780198206606

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206606.001.0001

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Germany: Political Tensions

Germany: Political Tensions

Chapter:
(p.162) 11 Germany: Political Tensions
Source:
European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914
Author(s):

R. D. Anderson

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206606.003.0011

This second chapter on Germany discusses political aspects. The development of nationalism and militarism in universities before 1914 had consequences for the rise of Nazism later. The chapter looks first at Bismarck's conflict with the Catholic Church (the Kulturkampf), and later relations with the Catholic population. The problems of the new German empire were reflected in the work of historians and social scientists, including Max Weber. The régime was hostile to socialists, who were excluded from chairs. There was also strong prejudice against Jewish academics, who were not excluded from chairs, but met many obstacles. Finally, the chapter considers the work of Fritz Ringer on the ‘decline of the mandarins’: Ringer's thesis was that the professors, feeling their social position threatened, turned to cultural pessimism and nationalist politics. Recent historical work, however, has modified his picture of Wilhelmine Germany.

Keywords:   Germany, nationalism, Kulturkampf, Max Weber, anti-Semitism, Fritz Ringer, mandarins

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