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European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914$
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R. D. Anderson

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780198206606

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206606.001.0001

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Italy and Spain

Italy and Spain

(p.209) 14 Italy and Spain
European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914

R. D. Anderson

Oxford University Press

Italy and Spain both inherited a large number of universities from the ancien régime, and built national systems on the centralized French model. Both were Catholic countries where liberal regimes aimed to restrict the power of the church. In Italy, universities were seen as a way of promoting national feeling after unification, but in practice centralization was limited by a strong regionalism. The uniformity of curricula and the dominance of professional training were thought to deaden intellectual initiative, and the German model was invoked by reformers. Despite much debate, little change was made, but in Italy, unlike Spain, scientific achievements were of a European standard. In Spain, centralization went further, and the system was dominated by the new University of Madrid. Poverty and political upheaval limited the universities' achievements, though in the 1870s and again in the early 20th century there were sustained campaigns for intellectual renewal.

Keywords:   Italy, Spain, Catholic church, liberalism, Madrid, French model

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