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European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914$
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R. D. Anderson

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780198206606

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206606.001.0001

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Habsburg and other Nationalisms

Habsburg and other Nationalisms

(p.225) 15 Habsburg and other Nationalisms
European Universities from the Enlightenment to 1914

R. D. Anderson

Oxford University Press

This chapter first looks at some general theories about nationalism, such as those of Ernest Gellner and Miroslav Hroch, and at cases such as Norway, Finland, the Flemish movement in Belgium, Greece, and Romania. Within the Habsburg Empire, repression after 1848 eventually failed. After the creation of the ‘dual monarchy’ in 1867, Hungarian universities became expressions of Magyar culture, with few concessions to national minorities. In the western part of the empire, by contrast, concessions were made to the linguistic demands of Poles and Czechs, notably the creation of a Czech university at Prague in 1882. This in turn produced a backlash from German-speaking students, provoking the development of pangermanism and anti-Semitism. Jewish professors and students faced discrimination similar to that in Germany. On the eve of 1914, Habsburg universities were intellectually impressive, but nationalist tensions seemed to pose insoluble problems.

Keywords:   Ernest Gellner, Miroslav Hroch, Norway, Finland, Belgium, Greece, Romania, Habsburg Empire, Prague, anti-Semitism

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