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Social Security in Developing Countries$

Ehtisham Ahmad, Jean Drèze, John Hills, and Amartya Sen

Print publication date: 1991

Print ISBN-13: 9780198233008

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233008.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 October 2020

(p.466) (p.467) Index

(p.466) (p.467) Index

Source:
Social Security in Developing Countries
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Abel-Smith, B. 95
Abraham, A. 137, 140, 149 n., 151–2
Adelman, I. 8n.
Africa 15, 18–19 n., 114–15, 130, 156–7, 163, 202, 206 n., 209, 218n
faminein 16–21, 57, 218 n., 395, 402, 411–12
hxaro system (of Kung San hunter-gatherers) 144–7, 160–1
SADCC states, social security in 415–65;
impact of welfare policies on health and nutrition 431–6;
social welfare programmes 419–31
agricultural development 426–8
education 422–4
food and income support 429–30
food subsidization 430–1
health care 420–2
water supply 424–5;
strategy models: Botswana 447–51
Mozambique 451–6;
target groups 436–46
and food security 436–8
and household incomes 444–6
and income and migration dependence 438–41
rural poor 441–3
urban poor 443–4
sub-Saharan, social security in 395–414;
community-based 404–11
and the aged 410
contrasting community-level systems 406–7
food insurance, transfers, and labour exchange 407–9
intrahousehold systems failures 409–10
inland-rich and land-scarce rural environments 404–6
and state-based systems, complementarities of 410–11
state-based 397–404;
food security and famine prevention 400–4;
growth and public spending 398–400
African Conference of Gerontology 410
Agarwal, B. ix, 112 n., 178 n., 182 n., 185, 191, 197, 198 n., 201 n., 217n., 229n., 234 n.
Ahmad, A. 3
Ahmad, S.E. 42, 51, 58, 63, 65–7
Ahmad, Q. K. 322, 330 n., 350
Ahmed, M. 232 n., 233
Alailima, P. 345
Alam, M.M. 319
Alamgir, M. 216 n., 223
Alderman, H. 58, 65
Alexander, P. 125–8, 158
Amarasinghe, O. 125, 131, 158
Ameline, C. 84
Anand, S. 26n., 65, 345, 349n.
Andhra Pradesh 182 n., 184, 202, 206, 207 n., 208, 210, 345
Andrews, B. 81
Anker, R. 67
Appadurai, A. 223–7, 230
Aristotle 7, 31, 120
Arroba, G. 373 n., 384 n.
Arrow, K. 28 n.
Asaduzzaman, M. 337
Ashton, B. 250
Assam 179 n.
Atkinson, A. B. viii, ix, 8 n., 41–5, 50, 53, 55, 64, 67, 70–1, 86, 98, 247 n.
Autier, P. 17 n.
Bagchee, S. 322, 334
Bahamas 357, 366, 375, 385–6, 391
Baker, J. 85
Baland, J. M. 112 n., 127 n.
Bandyopadhyay, D. 307–9, 313, 315, 316 n., 329, 330 n., 337
Banerjee, n. 177–8, 184–5, 199–200
Bangladesh 52, 58, 198–9, 202, 206 n., 213 n., 223, 227 n., 231–3, 234 n., 304
basic needs, public provision of 340–2
Food For Work 330–1, 337, 340–1
Grameen Bank 231–3, 319–22, 327–9
Institute of Development Studies 330, 337
land control in 307–10, 316, 318
Ministry of Food 340–1
self-employment in 318–22, 327–9
wage labour in 330–1
Banister, J. 250, 276
Bapat, M.T. 213 n.
Barbados 357, 366, 368, 373, 375, 385–6, 388–9
Barbor-Might, R. 98
Bardhan, K. 177–8
Bardhan, P. xi, 44–5, 51, 112 n., 132, 162, 199, 201 n., 305 n.
Barr, n. 41, 59, 82, 92
Barro, R.J. 68
Basu, K. 26n., 337
Bayart, J. F. 163
Beale, K. xi
Beals, R.L. 124–5 n.
Becker, C. S. 59, 68
Behrman, J. R. 201
(p.468) Beijing 253, 282, 286
Beijing Review 250, 284, 296
Bell, C. 50, 52
Belshaw, C. 112 n., 114, 142, 144, 151
Bengal 17, 18 n., 206 n., 207–8, 214–16, 218–27, 310, 315–16, 318
famine (1943) 218–27, 230
Famine Enquiry Commission (1945) 219
Bennett, J. W. 143
Berg, A. 15n., 26n.
Berkes, F. 125
Bernstein, T. 275
Berry, S. S. 16 n., 122
Besley, T. 63–5
Beveridge, W. H. 83–4, 91, 95, 103, 356, 360
Bhalla, S. 199
Bhalla, S.S. 345, 349 n.
Bhatia, B. M. 342
Bhatt, E. 233 n.
Bhattacharya, n. 14 n.
Bhende, M. J. 50
Bienen, H. 58, 65
Bihar 184, 206 n., 209–10, 215
Binns, C.W. 15 n.
Binswanger, H. P. 50, 135–6, 139–41, 157, 162, 199, 404
Bismarck, Otto von 87, 103, 356
Bliss, C.J. xi, 45, 108, 199
Boas, F. 144
Bolivia 368, 373, 386
Bombay 336
Booth, A. 117
Borkar, V. V. 207, 209, 214, 216–17 n.
Borneo 142–3
Borton, J. 17 n.
Borzutsky, S. 360
Bose, B. 314 n., 318 n.
Boserup, E. 157
Botswana 17, 19 n., 21 n., 105, 145, 402 n., 415 n., 416, 418–19, 421–7, 431–8, 440–3, 447–52, 457–9, 461
Democratic Party 450
Ministry of Agriculture 444 n.
Ministry of Finance and Development Planning 459
reciprocal exchange among Nata River Basarwa (Bushmen) 147–9
Rural Development Council 447
Boulding, E. 191
Bourdieu, P. 114, 119, 131, 132
Bourguignon, F. 98
Bradshaw, J. 99
Brannen, J. 8n.
Brara, R. 185, 191
Braverman, A. 49–50
Breman, J. 132, 177, 193 n., 196–7, 199
Brennan, L. 17 n.
Briscoe, J. 184
Brown, K. 203 n.
Bumgarner, R. 27 n.
Burgess, R. viii
Burghes, L. 101
Burling, R. 191
Burtless, G. 102
Butz, W.P. 67
Cain, M. T. 198
Caldwell, J. C. 26–7 n., 41, 58, 176n., 197–8, 201, 207–8, 210–11, 212 n., 213–14, 216 n., 347 n.
Campbell, D.J. 214
CapeVerde 17, 19n., 21 n., 402 n.
capital markets 49–50
Case, A. 66
Cashdan, E. 145, 147–9, 160
Cassen, R. xi
Castaneda, T. 26 n.
Centre for Development Studies 345 n., 346
Chambers, R. 51, 124, 185, 203 n., 205
Chandler, A. F.D. 231 n.
Chandrasekera, I. S. 343–4
Chao, K. 63
Chaudhury, A. 202
Chen, C. C. 277–8
Chen, M. 176 n., 177, 197, 207, 210, 217
Chiappori, P. A. 98
child poverty 9
child support 83, 88–9, 91–2, 94–5, 289
in Britain 95–8
in France 98–9
in United States 100–2
China 17, 18–19 n., 23–4, 26–8, 30, 32, 59, 67, 157
‘All China Federation of Trade Unions’ 254
collectivization in 265–7, 273, 291–2, 298
Communist Party 68–9
Family Law (1980) 255
‘Great Patriotic Health Campaign’ 276
Labour Regulation (1986) 281
land reform in 264–5
Ministry of Civil Affairs 254
Ministry of Public Health 278
Responsibility System 267–8, 271, 278, 286
single-lineage villages, social welfare in 68–9
social security in 247–304;
historical background 248–51;
in rural areas 263–79
government pricing and trading policies 268–70
health care 276–9
(p.469) income maintenance and income promotion 270–6
transformations in rural economy 263–8;
system 251–63
expenditure 258–9
financing 260–2
main agencies 254–6
programmes 256–8;
in urban areas 279–97
and decline in income 295–6
entitlements, employment and earnings 279–86
household registration and rationing of consumer goods 286–8
labour insurance 289–90, 292–4, 296–7
pooling of pension liabilities 292–3
and unemployment 294–5, 299
‘Women’s Association’ 254
Chinnappa, B. n. 174 n.
Chowdhury, K. M. 213 n.
Chowdhury, O. H. 331
Clarke, D. 396 n.
Clay, E. 175–6 n.
climate 140–9
Coale, A. J. 250
Coate, S. 59
Codere, H. S. 144
Cohen, J. 122
Cohen, M.S. 288
Collard, D. 137
Collier, W. L. 158
Colombia 361, 368, 372, 375, 380, 382, 386
Colson, E. 114, 118, 124
Comité Permanent Interérats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel 17 n.
Commander, S. 193–7 n.
Connell, J. 177 n.
Copestake, J. 231 n.
Corbett, J. 124 n.
Cornia, G. 41, 435, 445, 446 n.
Croll, E. 265
Cruz-Saco, M. A. 376 n.
Culyer, A. J. 8n.
Currey, B. 206 n., 213 n., 217 n., 227n.
Curtis, D. 402 n.
Cutler, P. 17 n.
Dahlman, C. 121, 139 n.
Dalton, G. 112n.
Dandekar, K. 51, 229, 334–5
Dandekar, V.M. 326, 337, 342 n.
Dantwala, M. L. 337
Danziger, S. H. 41
Das Gupta, M. 163
Dasgupta, B. 175 n., 311 n., 314 n.
Dasgupta, M. 184–5, 193 n., 196, 207 n.
Dasgupta, P. 8n.
Dasgupta, S. 179 n., 182 n.
Datt, G. 52
Davies, R. 436
De, n. 333
De Geyndt, W. 382
deJanvry, A. 51–2, 343 n.
de Oliviera, F. 44, 58
de Sainte Croix, G. E. M. 7 n.
de Waal, A. 15 n.
Dearden, L. 59–60, 67
Deaton, A. xi, 45, 49, 66, 81 n.
Delhi 184
Deng Xiaoping 250, 278
deprivation
and alternative security strategies 22–8
nature of 5–9
poverty and 8–9
quality of life 6–8
and’real income’ 6–7
and utilitarian notion of value 5–6
world-wide pattern of 10
Desai, G. M. 213 n.
Desai, M. xi, 17 n., 247 n.
Desai, R.X. 178
Deshpande, V. 229 n.
Dhadda, S. 206 n., 223 n.
Dhagamvar, V. 231 n.
Diamond, P. A. 54, 85
Dirks, R. 113 n., 223 n.
disabled, support for 41
Dixon-Mueller, R. 235 n.
Dominican Republic 386
Donato, J. 415 n.
Downing, T. 402 n.
Drèze, J. vii, 8n., 15–21 n., 24n., 26–7n., 29–30 n., 41–2 n., 44, 51–2 n., 56–8, 61, 64–5, 81 n., 105, 107, 112 n., 124 n., 176 n., 198, 201 n., 217, 229, 231 n., 247 n., 305 n., 306 n., 342 n., 395 n., 402 n., 408
drought and famine in poor agricultural communities 206–18
consumption adjustments 213–14
disposal of assets 214–18
and protective food-security strategies: dependence on communal resources 206–7;
patron-kin relationships and informal credit systems 207–9
work and demographic adjustments 210–13
Drucker, P. 144
Dworkin, R. 57
Ecuador 368, 372, 377, 382, 386
Edirisinghe, n. 343
education 41, 59, 64, 422–4
Edwards, R.M. 334n., 335–6, 337 n.
(p.470) Egypt 58
Eicher, C. K. 16 n.
El Salvador 60, 386
elderly, support for 67–8, 255–6, 274–6, 368
Endicott, S. 265, 276
environmental degredation 52, 191
Epstein, S. 193–6 n., 208
Epstein, T. S. 133, 134 n.
Erappa, S. 231 n., 322, 329
Eswaran, M. 140
Ethiopia 19 n., 401, 411
E vans-Pritchard, E. E. 143
famine 15–21, 57, 206–30, 298, 305, 395, 402, 411–12
and cash support 18–21
early intervention in 17–18, 29
Feder, G. 50
FeiXiaotong 287
Feng L. 284
Fernandes, W. 185, 191, 198, 200–1
Feuchtwang, S. 269
Fiegehen, G. 83
Fields, G. 51
Finland 10
Firth, R. 131
Flegg, A.T. 26 n.
Fleuret, A. 114
Foldes, L. 107
Fonseka, C. 305 n.
Food and Agriculture Organization 16 n.
Food Studies Group 435, 440
food subsidies 65
Foster, J. 8n.
France 82, 102–3, 105–7, 357
benefits 83, 98–9
Freedman, M. 69
Fukuzawa, H. 157
Fuller, C.J. 157 n.
Furniss, E. 162 n.
Gaiha, R. 209 n.
Galbraith, J. K. 103
Gambia, The 405–12
Gangrade, K. D. 206 n., 223 n.
Garcia, M. 26n., 65
Garfinkel, I. 101
Gavan, J. D. 343–4
Geertz, C. 130
George, P. S. 343–4
George, S. 178
Gersovitz, M. 49, 58, 65
Ghodake, R. D. 175 n., 178 n., 182 n.
Ghose, A.K. 216 n.
Gianchandani, D. 329
Gilbert, n. 163
Giri, J. 114
Glantz, M. 402 n.
Glewwe, P. 52, 63, 65, 349 n.
Goode, R. 106
Gough, K. 133
Gray, R. H. 346
Green, R. 415 n., 418, 431, 458
Greenough, P. R. 173, 206 n., 207–8, 217 n., 219–23, 226–7, 232
Gregory, C.A. 118–19
Griffin, K. 8n., 13n.
Guangzhou 253, 282, 294
Guasch, J. L. 49–50
Guatemala 372–3, 386
Guhan, S. xi, 67, 229, 306n.
Gujarat 184, 196 n., 197, 207, 213, 216–17, 223, 334
Gulati, L. 179 n., 201–2
Gunatilleke, G. 345–6
Gunawardena, P. 309, 312
Guyana 388
Gwatkin, D. R. 26 n., 345 n.
Habib, I. 157
Haggis, J. 128–9, 159
Haiti 357–8, 368, 373
Halstead, S.B. 26–7 n., 41
Hameed, n.D.A. 309 n.
Hammond, P. J. 64
Hammond, R.J. 12 n.
Hanlon, J. 418
Haque, T. 330 n.
Harbert, L. 26 n.
Hardiman, M. xi
Harris, C. 345
Harriss, B. xi, 112 n.
Harriss, J. 178, 179 n., 201 n.
Hart, G. 130, 158
Hart, K. 7–8 n.
Harvard School of Public Health 41
Hashimoto, A. xi
Haveman, R. H. 84
Hawthorn, G. 7–8 n.
Hay, R. 19 n., 402 n., 415 n., 461
Hayamai, Y. 115, 117, 120–1, 129–30, 137, 158
health care 41, 63, 276–9, 289, 297, 346, 356, 375, 385, 396, 420–2
Heidenheimer, A. J. 87
Helm, D. 8n.
Henderson, G. 288
Herring, R. J. 310, 334n., 335–6, 337 n.
Hill, P. 211–13 n.
Hills, J. viii, ix, 3, 247 n., 415 n.
Himachal Pradesh 179 n.
(p.471) Hirway, I. 231 n.
Hitchcock, I. T.T. 218 n.
Holm, J. 449
Honduras 358, 373, 389
Hong Kong 23, 32
Hopkins, R. 58, 65
Horn, J. S. 276
Hossain, I. 8n.
Hossain, M. 50, 176n., 202 n., 203, 231–2 n., 319, 320 n., 322, 327–8, 330 n.
Huddleston, B. 337
Huppi, M. 50
Hussain, A. ix, x, 30 n., 59, 67, 69, 247 n., 249–51, 256, 264, 269, 271, 274–5, 277–8, 294–6
Iliffe, J. 404, 409
illiteracy 5–6
income support 41, 83, 89, 91, 97, 368, 429–30
India 17, 19n., 21 n., 66, 105, 119, 132–4, 157, 159, 163, 408, 461
basic needs, public provision of 338–40, 342–7
Centre for Science and Environment (Delhi) 184–5, 229 n.
Communist Party 308 n., 312, 314, 316, 329
Development of Women and Children in the Rural Areas 231 n.
famine in 57, 206–30
Famine Commission (1880) 107, 206
Food For Work 331–2
Government of 184, 191 n., 231 n., 306n., 311 n.
illiteracy in 5–6
Institute for Financial Management and Research (Madras) 324
Integrated Rural Development Programme 218, 231 n., 233, 319, 321–30
land control in 306–16, 318
National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development 321
National Committee on the Development of Backward Areas 325
National Council of Applied Economic Research 184
National Dairy Development Board 233
National Rural Employment Programme 332–4
People’s Institute for Development and Training 234–5 n.
Planning Commission: Programme Evaluation Organization 321, 329, 334, 336
Rural Labour Enquiry 174, 178 n., 335
Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme 332–3
Self Employed Women’s Association 233–4
self-employment in 318–19, 321–7, 329–30
vulnerable rural households, survival strategies of 171–244
wage labour in 330–7
see also individual states and regions
Institute of Development Studies 16 n.
Bulletin 206 n.
insurance markets 50–1
Inter-American Development Bank 376 n., 384
International Centre of Social Gerontology 410 n.
International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics 174 n., 199, 201 n., 202
International Food Policy Research Institute 330, 337
International Labour Office 93–4
International Labour Organization 334, 356, 360, 374, 384–7, 392, 396 n., 443
International Social Security Association 383 n., 396 n.
Isenman, P. 26 n., 339, 343
Ishikawa, S. 129, 132, 157
Islam, R. 319 n., 331
Ismael, J. S. 25 n.
Isuani, E. A. 372–3 n. 377 n.
Jain, A. K. 26 n.
Jallade, J-P. 84, 92
Jamaica 23–4, 26, 32, 357, 366, 375, 386, 388–9
Jamison, D. 26–7 n.
Jansen, E.G. 198
Japan 10, 134–5, 386
life expectancy pattern in 11–12
Java 60, 129–30, 158, 182
Jayawardena, L. xi
Jennings, J. xi
Jetly, S. 178, 197, 198 n.
Jimenez, E. xi, 44, 59–60, 62–3, 66–8
Jodha, n. S. 124, 174 n., 176 n., 182, 184–5, 191–2, 207, 209–10, 213 n., 214, 216, 217 n.
Johnston, A. 423, 460
Jones, E.L. 113 n., 157, 159
Jose, A. V. 339 n., 346
Joshi, P.C. 308 n.
Kahn, A.J. 84–5
Kakwani, n. 8n.
Kalpagam, U. 234 n.
Kamerman, S. B. 84–5
Kanbur, R. 7–8 n., 26n., 63, 65, 349n.
Kapadia, K.M. 226 n.
Kar, P.C. 197
(p.472) Karnataka 179 n., 198, 201, 206 n., 209–12, 214, 216 n., 329, 334, 345
Katz, L.F. 70
Kaufman, D. 59–60
Kerala 14 n., 26–8, 179, 182, 308–9, 315–16, 338–40, 342–9, 400
Kerala Forest Research Institute 182
quality of life in 14 n.
reciprocal credit system in fishing community 149–54
Khan, A. R. 8n., 13n.
Khasnabis, R. 314 n.
Kikuchi, M. 115, 117, 120–1, 129–30, 137, 158
Kiljunen, K. 15 n.
King, R. 54
Knight, J. 8n.
Knowles, J. C. 67
Kohli, A. 312, 314
Kolenda, P. 211 n., 212–13
Kone, H. 18 n.
Kotlikoff, L. J. 43
Kotwal, A. 140
Krishnamachari, K. A. V. R. 15 n.
Krueger, A. B. 70
Kulkarni, S. 184
Kumar, B.G. 19n., 26n.
Kumar, D. 157
Kumar, G. 339 n., 345 n.
Kumar, S.K. 201, 395
Kurian, n. J. 321–3, 325–6, 330
Kuwait 23, 25, 32
Kynch, J. 201–2
labour markets 51–2
Lall, S. 8n.
Lampman, R. J. 83, 103
Lanjouw, P. 3
Lansley, P. S. 83
Latin America 58
and the Caribbean, social insurance/security in 356–94;
benefits, other expenditure, and total costs 384–91
administrative costs 386
cost of universal social security coverage 389–91
growing cost of social security 386–9
inequalities in benefits 384–6;
coverage of risks and population 367–77,
expansion of coverage 376–7
inequalities in coverage 371–3
legal and statistical coverage, distinction between 368–71,
and limits of Bismarckian model 373–6;
financing 377–84
funding techniques 383–4
sources 377–81
stability 381–2;
historical evolution 358–62
intermediate countries 360–1
late-comer countries 361–2
pioneer countries 358–60;
trends and typology 362–7
Le Grand, J. xi, 8l, 88
León, F. 377
Lepage, H. 120
Leslie, J. 201 n.
Lesotho 415 n., 418, 421–2, 426, 429, 435–7, 440–3, 461
Lewis, J. P. 42, 44, 53, 58, 63
Lewis, O. 193 n., 207
Li, L. M. 19 n.
Lindauer, D. L. 59–60
Lipton, M. xi, 45, 81, 112, 117, 120–1, 137, 159–60, 174 n., 176 n., 178 n., 201 n., 395 n., 415n.
Liu, A. 59, 67
Liu, H. 247 n., 249, 251, 256, 271, 274–5, 286, 294–6
LiuShaoqi 250
London School of Economics 108
Ratan Tata Foundation 108
longevity patterns in Britain and Japan 11–13
Longhurst, R. 51, 124, 202 n., 203
Loveday, A. 19 n.
Lowe, C. R. 12 n.
Lucas, R.E.B. 60–1
Lynes, T. 88, 103
McAlpin, M. 210
MacDonald, M. 88
Mclntire, J. 404
Mackenzie, G. A. 44, 51, 67
McKeown, T. 12 n.
Maclachlan, M. D. 197, 206 n., 211, 213, 234
Macneil, I. R. 119
McNeill, W. H. 12 n.
MacQuarrie, L. 289
Madan, T.n. 218 n.
MadhyaPradesh 179 n., 182, 184
Maguire, M. 201–2
Mahalanobis, P. C. 214, 216 n., 218–19, 226 n.
Maharashtra 179 n., 182 n., 202, 209, 216–17, 229
Bhoomi Sena Movement 234
Employment Guarantee Scheme 229, 333–7
Mahieu, F. R. 16 n.
Maiti, A.K. 179 n., 182 n.
Majumdar, D. n. 176 n., 197
Malinowski, B. 114
Mallory, W.H. 19 n.
Malloy, J. 359 n.
Mao Zedong 250
(p.473) Marrack, J.R. 12 n.
Marum, E.M. 234 n.
Marx, K. 7–8, 31, 119
Mata, L. 26 n.
maternity benefits 289, 296–7, 356, 367–8, 385
Mauss, M. 119
Mayer, E. 124 n.
Meillassoux, C. 122, 141
Mellor, J.W. 16 n., 397 n., 404
Mencher, J. P. 177 n., 179, 345 n., 347
Menon, G. 185, 191, 198, 200–1
Mesa-Lago, C. viii, x, 358n., 362, 266n., 367, 372, 373 n., 375, 382, 386 n., 388–9 n., 392 n.
Mexico 124 n., 360–1, 367, 369, 371–2, 375–6, 380–2, 385–6
COPLAMAR 375, 377 n., 381
IMSS (social-insurance institute) 375, 392
Meyer, B.D. 70
Midgley, J. 41–3, 51, 58, 63, 67, 71, 89, 104, 409
Mies, M. 179 n.
Migdal, J. 112 n., 117
Miller, B. 218
Minturn, L. 218 n.
Mirrlees, J. A. 53, 70
Mitchell, J. C. 404
Mitra, M. 178, 200, 218
Mitra, S. 3
Mitter, S. 18 n.
Moffitt, R. 70
Montgomery, E. 197
Moore, M. 307–8 n., 310 n., 317
Morgan, R. x, 436–7, 447, 449
Morio, S. 13 n.
Morris, C. 8n.
Morris, D.M. 214
Morris, M.D. 8n.
Morrison, B. 26 n.
mortality, mortality rates 10, 23–4, 219–22, 250–1, 338–9, 343–6, 357 n., 400, 402, 431–6
Mouton, P. 396, 397 n.
Mozambique 415 n., 416, 418, 420–3, 427–31, 435–7, 440–1, 443–6, 451–8, 461–2
Department for Prevention and Combat of Natural Calamities 454–5
FRELIMO (liberation movement) 451, 457–8
Government of 462
Ministry of Education 423
National Executive Commission for Emergency 455–6
Muellbauer, J. 7–8 n.
Mukherjee, A. 52, 176 n.
Mundle, S. 199
Muniz, J. G. 27 n.
Muqtada, M. 319
Murray, C. 41, 85
Mwaluko, E. P. 19 n.
Nadkarni, V. 207, 209, 214, 216–17 n.
Nag, M. 26–7 n., 346n.
Namibia 145
Nari Seva Sangha 222
Nath, J. 198
Neale, W.C. 129
Nepal 52, 208–10, 231
Small Farmer’s Development Programme 234 n.
Netherlands, the 357
Newbery, D. M. G. 51, 53, 70, 124, 136, 139, 141, 161
Nicaragua 386
Nichols, A. 63–4
Nixon, Richard 102
Noponen, H. 234 n.
Noronha, R. 122–3, 157
North, D.C. 162
North Cameroon 214
North Korea 23 n.
Nour, M. M. 16 n.
Nugent, J. B. 68, 132 n.
Nussbaum, M. 7n.
Obeyesekere, G. 128
Olson, M. 116, 136, 137 n.
Orissa 184–5, 200
Orlove, B. 143
Ortiz, S. 161
Osmani, S.R. x, 8 n., 202–3, 331, 341
Otten, M.W. 15 n.
Oughton, L. 216 n.
Padmini, R. 19 n.
Palmer, J. L. 87–8
Panama 361, 369, 372–3, 377, 381, 386, 389, 392
Panikar, P. G. K. 346–7 n.
Paraguay 361, 373
Parish, W.L. 68–9, 265
Patel, V. 174 n.
Payne, P. 202n., 203
Pechman, J. A. 100
Peiris, G.H. 308–9 n., 310
PengX. 17 n., 250
pensions, pension schemes 41, 55, 59, 85–6, 88, 91–3, 289–93, 296–7, 356, 368, 375, 384–5, 396
Perera, P. D. A. 27 n.
Perera, U.L.J. 317
(p.474) Perkins, D. 253, 265
Philippines, the 130
Piachaud, D. 99
Piddocke, S. 144
Pingali, P. 157
Pingle, V. 184
Pinstrup-Andersen, P. 26 n., 41, 58, 65
Pitre, V. 335 n.
Pitt-Rivers, J. 132
Platteau, J. P. ix, 16 n., 127 n., 132 n., 134 n., 137, 140, 149 n., 151–2, 157, 162, 409
Polanyi, K. 112–14, 162 n.
Portugal 357
Posner, C. 117, 137, 140–1, 143
Pospisil, L. 114
poverty
as capability failure 8–9
and income shortage 8–9
problems of definition 44–5 see also child poverty; deprivation; under individual countries
Powelson, J. P. 54
Prescott, n. 26 n.
Preston, S.H. 250
Prindle, P. H. 208–10
Provinse, J.H. 142–3
public action 3–40
nature of 28–30
Punjab 179 n.
Puffert, D. J. 43–4, 51
Quinn, V. 435
Qureshi, M. L. 59
Rahaman, M. M. 206 n.
Rahman, A. 232 n., 330 n.
Rahman, R.I. 232–4n.
Raj, K.n. 308, 309n., 315n., 316
Rajasthan 191–2, 197, 198 n., 206 n., 210–11, 213 n., 214, 216–17, 329
Rajgopalan, S. 203 n.
Ram, n. 29n., 57
Ramachandran, V. K. 305 n.
Ramalingaswani, V. 15 n.
Randhawa, M.S. 182
Rangaswami, A. 213
Rangaswamy, P. 323–4, 327
Ranis, Gus xi
Rao, C. H. H. 53, 323–4, 327
Rao, n.V.K. 207, 210
Rao, V. M. 231 n., 323, 329
Rasaputra, W. 338, 346
Rath, n. 321, 325–6, 337
Ravallion, M. 51–2, 59–60, 63, 66–7
Reagan, Ronald 87
Reddy, G. P. 206–8, 213, 217
Reddy, S. 18n., 29n.
Regional Employment Programme for Latin America and the Caribbean 372–4
Reutlinger, S. xi
Riskin, C. 30 n.
Robertson, A. F. 129, 148, 158
Rohrbach, D. 426
Roosevelt, Franklin D, 92, 103
Rose, T. 16 n.
Rosenberg. M. 359
Rosenzweig, M. 51–2, 59–61, 135–6, 140, 157, 162, 199, 201 n.
Rosero, L. 26 n.
Rothschild, M. 135
Rudra, A. 132, 162, 176 n., 199, 314 n.
Rukuni, M. 16 n.
Runciman, W.G. 53
Runge, C.T. 52–3
Rwanda 405–12
Ryan, J. 50
Ryan, J. G. 178–9 n., 182 n., 184–5, 202, 203 n.
Sachs, I. 25 n.
Saenz, L. 27 n.
Sahlins, M. 112 n., 114, 143
Sahn, D. 344
Salva, C. 178
Samaraweera, V. 308 n., 317
Samuelson, P. A. 28n., 57
Sanderatne, n. 310
Saradamoni, K. 177 n., 179 n.
Sathe, M. 334–5
Saunders, D. 436
Sawhill, I. V. 41
Scandizzo, P. 26 n.
Schapera, I. 148
Schokkaert, E. 7n.
Schubert, B. xi
Schultz, T. P. 41, 201 n.
Schurman, F. 264
Scott, C. xi
Scott, J. C. 112, 114, 117, 120, 129, 132, 154–5, 158, 162, 173, 185
seasonality in poor agricultural communities 174–206
and migration 177–8
and protective food-security strategies; access to common property resources 182–92;
diversification of income sources 176–82;
exploitation of assets 203–6;
exploitation of social relationships and informal credit systems 193–9;
use of household stores 199–203
(p.475) and migration 177–8
Sebstad, J. 233 n.
security, individual, fragility of 10–11
Sen, A. K. viii, 5–8 n., 14 n., 17 n., 19–21 n., 24 n., 26–7 n., 29–30 n., 41–2, 44–5, 51, 53, 56–8, 61, 124 n., 172–3, 182 n., 201, 208, 226–7, 230, 338, 339 n., 342 n., 349 n., 402 n.
Senegal 131
Sengupta, S. 201 n.
Service, E. R. 112 n., 114, 143
Sethi, H. 234 n.
Shah, A. B. 211 n.
Shanghai 253, 286
Shao, Y. 278
Sharma, R. 329
Sharma, U. 179 n., 197
Shigematsu, I. 13 n.
Shiva, V. 229 n., 234 n.
sickness and invalidity benefit 59, 83, 289, 296, 356, 367–8, 375, 385, 396
Sicular, T. 270
Siddiqui, K. 199 n., 231–2 n., 307, 308 n., 320 n.
Silva, G. V. S. 234
Silva, W.P.T. 174 n.
Simpson, R. 99
Singapore 23–4, 32
Singh, H. 333
Singh, K.S. 207–8, 210, 214n., 217 n.
Smith, A. 7n., 31
Smith, T. C. 122–3, 134–5, 158
Smout, T.C. 15 n.
Sobhan, R. 58
social insurance 55, 59, 83–4, 87, 91–4, 356
social security
in Africa: Southern (SADCC states) 415–65;
sub-Saharan 395–414
alternative operational strategies 22–8
analysis, methods of 105–8
in China 247–304
in developed countries 81–111;
administrative constraints 89–90;
alternatives to 90–1;
American model 92–4, 100–2;
British model 91, 93–8;
economic constraints 85–6;
as example to developing countries 103–8;
form and objectives 83–5;
French model 92, 93–4, 98–9;
political constraints 87–9
in developing countries: analysis 41–80;
definition 43–7, 71;
mechanisms for provision 62–71, 73;
reasons for government involvement 47–58, 71–2;
responsibility for 58–62, 72–3
and economic growth 11–14
and famine prevention 15–21
and fundamental rights 56–7
growth-mediated approach 22–5
and inequalities in income distribution 13
in Latin America and the Caribbean 356–94
need for 10–14
and poor agricultural families: external intervention 228–35;
familial disintegration 218–28;
food security mechanisms against seasonality and calamity 174–218;
Indian model 171–244;
intrafamily relations and food security 172–4
and poverty line, definition of 44–5
‘protective’ and ‘promotional’ objectives 3–4
provision: administrative concerns 65–7;
costs and targeting 62–5;
and fraud 69–70;
group incentives 67–9;
and incentive to reduce effort 70–1;
and incomplete information 65–6;
and maladministration 66–7
and public action 3–40
public pressure for 57–8
and relationship between individual income and individual capabilities 8–9, 14
‘safety-net’ formula 45
in South Asia 305–55
and standard of living 55–6, 62
support-led approach 22–8
traditional systems in Third World societies 112–70;
framework for evaluation of 117–40;
moral economy approach 112–15;
mutual insurance arrangements and risk-pooling 135–55;
performance of 155–63;
political economy approach 115–17;
see also village societies and variations of personal income 13–14
South Africa 428, 432 n., 438, 440–1, 445, 451–2, 458
African National Congress 451
South Asia
famine in 305
social security in 305–55;
through control over land 306–18;
alienation of State-owned land 316–18
ceiling-cum-redistribution policy 306–8
tenancy reform 308–16;
through public provision of basic needs 338–57;
through self-employment 318–30;
through wage employment 330–8
Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference 415–63
South India 185, 199, 201, 345
Working Women’s Forum 234
South Korea 23–4, 32
Soviet Union 277
Sow, F. 131
(p.476) Spain 357
Sri Lanka 26–8, 32, 131, 158, 250, 348–9, 400
basic needs, public provision of 338–40, 343–7
beachseining in 125–9
Dry Land Colonization Scheme 317
land control in 307–12, 314 n., 316–18
Land Development Ordinance (1935) 317
Mahaweli Accelerated Programme 318
self-employment in 318
Village Expansion Scheme 317
Waste Lands Ordinance (1840) 316
Srinivasan, T.n. 45, 51
Srivastava, R. 184
Stan, P. J. E. 67
Stark, O. 60–1
Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh 1984/5: 309 n.
Statistical Year Book of China 250, 264–5, 268
Stern, n. H. viii, xi, 3 n., 27 n., 30n., 45, 53, 70, 108, 199, 247 n., 250, 277–8
Steuer, M. xi
Stewart, F. xi, 6n., 8n., 26n., 112n., 445
Stiglitz, J. E. 49, 51, 53, 70, 135, 136, 139
Stock, R. 54
Streeten, P. 6n., 8 n., 163 n.
Subbarao, K. 324, 326, 343
Sudan 401–3, 411
Sugden, R. 52–3, 59
Sundaram, K. 321, 330 n.
Sundrum, R. M. 117
Swaminathan, M. 324
Swaziland 415 n., 420, 422–3, 426, 429, 432–6, 440–2, 444, 452
Sweden 10
Swift, J. 17 n.
Switzerland 10
Szreter, S. 12 n.
Taeuber, I.B. 13 n.
Taiwan 250
Takahashi, S. 13 n.
Tamil Nadu 179, 197, 229, 324, 345, 347
Tanzania 19 n., 415 n., 416, 418, 420–3, 427–36, 441–5, 452
Tawney, R.H. 108
Teklu, T. 402 n.
Tendulkar, S. D. 321, 330 n.
Tharakan, M. 308, 309 n., 315 n., 316
Thatcher, M. 88
Thimmaiah, G. 329
Thomas, R. P. 162
Thullen, P. 383 n.
TianJ. 287
Tianjin 286
Tilve, S. 335 n.
Titmuss, R. M. 12 n., 90, 106
Tiwari, 182
Tokman, V. 376 n.
Torry, W.I. 124, 145, 193–6 n., 396 n.
Townsend, P. 45, 53, 95
Townsend, W. 162 n.
Trechter, D. D. 214
Trinidad and Tobago 373, 386, 388
Tunisia 58
Turkey 125
Turnbull, C. 113n.
unemployment benefit 41, 59, 83, 91, 289, 356, 368, 385
UNICEF 10, 23 n., 41, 56, 423–4, 431, 435, 442–3, 455
United Arab Emirates 23–4, 32
United Kingdom 10, 59, 81–2, 102–3, 105–7, 139 n., 357
Beveridge Report (1942) 95
Child Benefit 83, 88–9, 91, 94–7
Child Benefits Now Campaign 95
Child Poverty Action Group 95
Department of Health and Social Security 83–4
Education Act 1944: 98
Family Credit 89, 97
Family Income Supplement 89, 97–8, 107
Housing Benefit 97
Income Support 83, 89, 91, 97–8
life expectancy pattern 11–12
‘middle class capture’ of welfare under Thatcher 88
National Assistance 91
National Health Service 12, 91, 94–5
National Insurance 91
One Parent Benefit 97
Poor Law 83, 89, 91
retirement pensions 91
Supplementary Benefit 89, 91, 97–8
Unemployment Benefit 83, 91
United Nations 41, 56, 250
United States of America 10, 81–2, 103, 105–7, 384, 386
Aid to Families with Dependent Children 92, 100–1
Department of Health and Human Services 101
effect of pensions on retirement in 86
food stamps 88, 92, 101
income support under Reagan 87–8
Institute for Research on Poverty 106
Longitudinal Retirement History Survey 86
Medicaid 93
Old Age Assistance 92
Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance 83
potlatch system (of Kwakiutl Indians) 143–4
Social Security Act 1935: 92
(p.477) Supplemental Security Income 92
Tax Reform Act (1986) 100
War on Poverty 92, 102
welfare (income-tested general assistance) 83, 92
Uttar Pradesh 179 n., 184, 191 n., 198 n., 202, 323–4
Vaidyanathan, A. 340 n.
Valaoras, V. G. 15 n.
value added tax 69
van Binsbergen, A. 19 n.
van Ootegem, L. 7n.
Varghese, T. 315 n.
Vatuk, S. 193 n., 197
Vaughan, M. 209, 223, 227 n., 402 n.
Venezuela 361, 369, 373, 375, 386, 392
Vietnam 159
village societies, traditional and access to productive assets 122–5;
SriLankan model 125–9
and access to work opportunities 129–35
incentive problems in 136–9
institutional build-up of 118–22
insurance and quasi-insurance schemes in 135–40
risk covariance in 139–40
risk-pooling mechanisms in 140–55
social security systems in 112–70
von Braun, J. x, 141, 402 n., 405 n., 406, 408–9
von Pishke, J. P. 50
Wade, R. 53, 117, 121, 136–8, 152, 235 n.
Walder, A. G. 281, 288
Walker, P. 17 n.
Walker, R. 84
Walker, T. S. 50, 124
Wallace, T.D. 179 n.
water supply provision 424–5
Watts, M. 158, 218 n., 402 n.
Waxier, n. 26 n.
Webb, P. J. R. 141, 402 n., 408
Weerawardena, I.R. 312 n.
Weinberg, D.H. 41
Weisbrod, B. A. 63–4, 88
Weiss, A. 49
Weitzman, M. L. 288
welfare economics 48–54
market failure 48–53
redistribution 53–4
West Bengal 178–9 n., 185, 199 n., 200, 308–16, 329–30, 342, 348
Westergaard, K. 314
Western India 210
White, B. 158, 182
White, G. 281
Whitehead, A. 16 n.
Whyte, M.K. 68–9, 265
Wickramasekara, P. 307, 317–18
Wickremeratne, L. A. 347 n.
Wiegand-Jahn, G. 395 n.
Wiessner, P. 145–7, 160–1
Will, P. E. 15 n., 19 n.
Williams, A. 8n.
Williams, B. 7–8 n.
Williamson, O. 114, 119
Wilson, D. 88
Wilson, G. 8n.
Wimaladharma, K. P. 318
Winter, D. 88
Winter, J. M. 12 n.
Winter, S.G. 53
Wiser, W.H. 193–6
Wolf, E. R. 112 n., 119 n., 120, 132
Wolf, M. 255
Wong, L. 289
Wong, T. T. 289
World Bank 23–4 n., 27 n., 41, 53, 56, 63, 66, 70, 250–1, 266, 275, 278, 357, 420, 444
World Food Programme 18 n., 449
World Health Organization 345, 392
Wynne, E. 120, 137–8
Yanagawa, H. 13 n.
Yao, F.K. 18 n.
York, E. 17 n.
Yunus, M. 232 n.
Yusuf, S. 265
Zambia 58, 415 n., 416, 420, 422, 428, 430–2, 442–5, 452, 460–1
Zeckhauser, R. 63–4
ZhaoL. 284
Zimbabwe 17, 396 n., 415, 418–19, 421–2, 424, 426, 429–32, 436–7, 441–2, 444, 452, 458, 461
Commission of Inquiry into Taxation (1987) 106
Zweig, D. 268, 273