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The Modern Law of Estoppel$
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Elizabeth Cooke

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198262220

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198262220.001.0001

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The Development of Estoppel(s)

The Development of Estoppel(s)

(p.16) 3 The Development of Estoppel(s)
The Modern Law of Estoppel


Oxford University Press

To understand the law of estoppel today, it is necessary to take a brief look at how it has developed. A number of branches or categories of estoppel, with different origins and inconsistent rules, have been developed over the years to meet changing human and commercial needs. The result has not been tidy. This chapter provides a rapid sketch rather than a comprehensive history as it examines the three main strands of development within the law of estoppel, noting some of the difficulties caused by the growth of categories in this way. It refers, of necessity, to the numerous labels for the various forms of estoppel as they have evolved, and the messiness of this will be obvious.

Keywords:   law, estoppel in pais, common law estoppel, court cases, estoppel by silence, estoppel by negligence, estoppel by convention, proprietary estoppel

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