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Electoral Systems and Party Systems – A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990 - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Arend Lijphart


An electoral system is the most fundamental element of representative democracy, translating citizen's votes into representatives' seats. It is also the most potent practical instrument available to democratic reformers. This book describes and classifies the seventy electoral systems used by twenty-seven democracies — including those of Western Europe, Australia, Canada, the USA, Costa Rica, India, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand — for 384 national legislative and European Parliament elections between 1945 and 1990. Using comparative and statistical analyses of these systems, the author demons ... More

Keywords: electoral system, party system, democracy, election, European Parliament, electoral thresholds, proportionality, multipartism

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 1994 Print ISBN-13: 9780198273479
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Arend Lijphart, author
University of California, San Diego