Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 3: Endemic Hunger$

Jean Drèze and Amartya Sen

Print publication date: 1991

Print ISBN-13: 9780198286370

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198286370.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 05 August 2020

(p.381) SUBJECT INDEX

(p.381) SUBJECT INDEX

Source:
The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 3: Endemic Hunger
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Africa155–93, 197–233, 281–302
agriculture: policy options215–29;
problems and constraints198–215
economic performance155
food situation trends282–91
imports and exports197
institutions and policies8–9
role of industry290–302
undernourishment155–93;
extent of8, 159–62;
indicators of156–93 see also individual countries
agricultural equipment10, 291–8
production291–3, 296
research and development293–7
agricultural processing10, 298–300, 302
agriculture
Africa8–9, 9, 197–233, 236–76, 240
Brazil98, 100–3
co‐operatives222, 228–9
employment in217–18
mechanization288, 318
per capita production197, 198, 282
and poverty137–8
role in development215–18
taxation47
terms of trade34–7, 208–9
wage‐earning groups287, 289
aid climate331–2
anthropometric
evidence163–8, 169, 183–8, 310
norms191–2
Argentina124
Bangladesh10–11, 307–43, 364, 366
credit316, 325 n., 336–8, 359, 361–2
famine327–32
food entitlement contraction312–27
food‐for‐work362–3
hunger308–12
IRDP359
life expectancy349
public food distribution system (PFDS)330–1, 333–5, 336
basal metabolic rate (BMR)160, 188–9, 190–1
basic needs provision11, 347, 358–68, 371
BELINDIA99–100
black market254
body mass index (BMI)163, 186, 188, 189
Brazil93–116
agriculture98, 100–3
crossover time120, 145
development history94–6
ecological debt103–4
housing113–14
income distribution94 n., 97–8, 106–7, 115
industrial structure97–8, 115
infant mortality114
land tenure101, 103, 115
life expectancy111–12
malnutrition108–10
poverty: extent of104–6;
food124;
and growth6–7, 145–8;
rural140–3;
urban125
racial relations114–15
social profile96, 104
social programmes115–16
two gear economy100
unemployment111
urbanization95, 102–3, 135
bureaucracy213
Burkina Faso295
calories
availability estimates157–8, 168, 170–4
distribution179–82, 182
intake estimates158–9
as intermediate goods181
normal requirement177–9, 182, 188–91, 309–11 see also food
capitalism, peripheral, dependent or retardatory93
cash‐crops246
Chad217
childrens'
growth128–9
Chile125, 127, 145
China4–5, 15–53
communes18–20, 37, 51
Cultural Revolution20, 48
distribution of food38–47, 47–51
famine28–33
famine and state policy51–2
five‐guarantee households48–9
Great Leap Forward5, 18, 29, 31
household responsibility system20
institutional framework18–21, 355
land distribution18
national food supply21–3
nutrition24–6
official statistics23 n.
physical geography15–16
pre‐reform food policy33–8
(p.382)
standard of living349
state grain procurement30, 40
cognitive development130
Colombia125, 135
commercialization rate38
comparative advantage226, 301
Costa Rica125
credit298, 316, 325 n., 336–8, 359–62
credit support scheme359, 361
crops
cash246
export246, 271–4
losses284, 327
mixed284
share‐cropping318–19
crossover time7, 120, 144–5
death rate65, 66–7, 70, 88
debts94, 99, 115
destitution line, see poverty line
devaluation strategy226–7
direct action4, 11–12, 348–59, 370
economic diversification276
economic growth
Bangladesh320
and equity357
and food entitlement341
inadequate319
and malnutrition317–20
perverse97–100
and poverty3–4, 6–7, 93–116, 120, 144–8, 351
education4, 349
Africa203, 265
Kerala354
Sri Lanka6, 58, 70–4, 89, 351, 352, 356
efficiency288
El Salvador125
employment10
in agriculture217–18
industrial290–1, 301
loss in famines328
off‐farm246, 249, 251, 253, 254, 256, 268, 275
wage289–90
Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS)359
equity, and growth357
ethanol, as petrol substitute98, 102
Ethiopia289, 291
exchange rates209, 226–7 see also foreign exchange
export cropping246, 271–4
exports99, 197, 276, 299
family size8
famine93, 197–8
aggravated by state policy29–31, 51–2
Bangladesh10–11, 307, 327–32, 342
China5, 28, 51–2
Kenya239–40
farm input subsidies199, 209–10, 224–5, 336, 343
farm service centres219
farms, size of221–2
fertility349 n.
fertilizers317, 336, 337–9
food
availability156, 312–14
consumption31–2, 41, 46, 78–9, 158–9, 168–9, 172, 175–7, 308;
actual intake156, 263–4
distribution5, 38–51, 52, 148–50, 156, 159;
basic grain47–8;
household270, 311;
Sri Lanka79–80;
workpoint grain48
entitlement281–2, 284–91, 311, 312–27, 341
expenditure308
imports274, 283
marketable surplus284–5
minimum requirement121–2, 125–7, 237–8
prices98, 285
processing10, 298–300, 302
production: per capita282;
specialization274
self‐sufficiency in34, 218–19, 225–6, 282–4, 301
subsidies74–81, 89, 351, 352–5, 356
supply42–3, 281–2
wasted168, 172 see also calories
food crop trading316
food poverty78–80, 124
food security, short‐term333–5
food stamp scheme76–7, 80, 359, 363–4
food‐for‐work (FFW)11, 359, 362–8
foodgrain21–3, 34, 41, 46, 312–14
data170–4
foreign exchange215, 217
reserve331, 342
Gabon217
Gambia295
Ghana209, 226
government, role of37, 210–11, 223, 230, 271, 273
Grameen Bank325 n., 338 n., 359, 361–2
Green Revolution317–18, 338
health
Kenya264–5
Sri Lanka58, 61–70, 89
(p.383) health care4
Africa203, 265
Kerala354
Sri Lanka6, 351–2, 356
height
average168–9
Honduras124, 125, 145
IBRD, see World Bank
IMF227, 331
imports197, 274, 283, 293, 331
grain39, 44–6
incentive goods285
incentives19, 34, 223–7
income distribution
Africa180, 189
Brazil94 n., 97–8, 106, 106–7, 115
China19
and production335
Sri Lanka353
within household270
income elasticities of calorie intake180–1
incomes
Bangladesh314–15
non‐agricultural274–5
Sri Lanka348
and work load189 see also off‐farm; remittances; wages
India5, 11, 349, 359, 361, 363–8, 368
Kerala348, 351, 353–5, 364
industrial sector292
employment290–1, 301
structure97–8, 115
industry
large‐scale290–1
manufacturing240
role in development9–10, 290–302
infant mortality
Bangladesh310
Brazil114
effects of malnutrition on130–1
Kenya236
Kerala353
Sri Lanka58, 65, 66–7, 70, 88, 349, 352
informal sector, Brazil99–100
infrastructure285
distribution203
institutions, rural228–9
Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDO)359–60
interest rate structure210
investment359
agricultural208, 249, 301, 326–7, 341, 359
allocation of285–9
industrial290
irrigation
Africa200–3, 219–20
Bangladesh320, 326, 336, 339–40
China16, 18
Ivory Coast209
Kenya288, 290–1, 298
agriculture9, 240
Central Province245–50, 258–75 passim
Coast Province257, 258–75 passim
Eastern Province250–1, 257–75 passim
growth241
Integrated Rural Survey241–45
location of poverty237–40
Nyanza Province254–6, 258–75 passim
Rift Valley Province256–7, 258–75 passim
smallholder agricultural areas236–76
Western Province251–4, 258–75 passim
labour
migration60, 97, 102–3, 241, 253, 268, 289
purchasing power328–9
shortage269–70
supply and demand323–4
surplus301
land
distribution268–9, 321–2
size of holdings, size221–2, 269, 321
tenure101, 103, 115, 319
Latin America7–8, 119–51
Liberia219
life expectancy349
Brazil111–12
China26
Sri Lanka352
literacy rates, Sri Lanka58, 71, 73–4
malaria eradication63–4, 351–2
Malawi299
maldevelopment93
malnutrition52, 80 n.
anthropometric evidence163–8, 169, 183–8, 318
Brazil108–10
child127–31, 236, 264–5
China26–7
definitions of188–92
and economic growth317–20
effects of127–35
Latin America119–51
and productivity132–3
markets
factor270
role of311
(p.384) Mexico124, 141, 143, 145, 349
migrants, see labour migration; urbanization
mixed cropping284
Mozambique285
multiple cropping index, China16, 17
Nigeria195, 200–3, 203, 209–10, 214, 219, 222, 227, 231–3, 288, 298
non‐farm sector316, 324 see also industrial sector
nutrition, China24–6
occupation, related to poverty135–40, 311, 315, 321, 324
off‐farm
activities289–90
employment246, 249, 251, 253, 254, 256, 268, 275
parastatal organizations202, 213, 229–30, 231–3
Peru144
policy
frequent changes in211, 213
targeting8, 148–50
political framework355–8, 369–70
political instability211, 213
poor, the, characteristics of119–20, 135–41
population pressure236, 268–71, 276, 319
poverty
Brazil6–7, 104–6, 124, 145–8
consumption‐based measures120–35
defined237–8
and economic growth6–7, 93–116, 120, 144–8, 351
expenditure262
food124–7, 262–3, 265
income260–2
indicators of258–60
Latin America119–51
and occupation135–40, 311, 321, 324
regional variations140–1, 142, 237–40
urban125
poverty line104, 121–4
price support336, 340
prices223–7
in famines329–30
food98, 285
pricing policies208–10 see also subsidies
production
and food entitlement315–17
and income distribution335
subsistence271
production function, individual's181–2
productivity, and malnutrition132–3
quota sales, China20–1
rationing38, 74–5, 80, 333–4, 363–4 see also food‐for‐work schemes; food, subsidies
remittances246, 251, 253, 254, 256, 257, 268
rice ration scheme363–4
roads, rural199–200, 204–5, 218–19
rural–urban gap8, 34–7, 50–1, 100, 124–5, 135, 145–7, 150
Senegal296, 298
share‐cropping318–19
Sierra Leone290, 348
social welfare
expenditure49, 68–9, 350–1, 355 see also education; food subsidies; health care
Somalia299
South Korea5–6, 7, 349, 355
speculation329–31, 342
Sri Lanka11, 58–90, 364
direct action5–6, 348–53
education58, 70–4, 89
food subsidies74–81, 89
health58, 61–70, 89
infant mortality58
literacy rates58, 71, 73–4
political framework355–7
state intervention and achievement:
econometric analysis81–90;
historical
overview60–81
stagflation93
standard of living349–50
starvation111
state, see government
state quotas47
statistics
China23 n.
problems of78, 80 n., 309–11, 314
stunting164, 192, 264
Sub‐Saharan Africa, see Africa
subsidies3, 74–8, 89, 351, 352–5, 356
farm input199, 209–10, 224–5, 336, 343
Sudan293
Swaziland297
Taiwan355
Tanzania211 n., 285, 290, 295, 296, 297–8, 300
tariff structures226
taxation47, 217
technology223, 285, 301, 317–18, 320, 326, 336–7, 342
terms of trade, rural/urban34–7, 208–9
Togo209
(p.385) Trans National Corporations (TNCs)292, 298–9
transport199, 241 see also roads, rural
trickle‐down theory93, 348
UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), undernourishment statistics155–92 passim
undernutrition, see malnutrition
unemployment, Brazil111
urban‐rural gap, see rural‐urban gap
urbanization rates, Latin America95, 102–3, 124–5, 135
Venezuela127
wages287, 289, 323, 365–8
wasting and stunting164, 192, 264
weight
average168–9
norms186, 188 see also body mass index (BMI)
welfare service, see social welfare
working
capacity131–2
conditions60
World Bank9
Africultural Development Projects227–8
undernutrition estimates155–92 passim
Zambia293
Zimbabwe222 (p.386) (p.387) (p.388) (p.389) (p.390)