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The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 3: Endemic Hunger$

Jean Drèze and Amartya Sen

Print publication date: 1991

Print ISBN-13: 9780198286370

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198286370.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 13 August 2020

(p.xix) LIST OF TABLES

(p.xix) LIST OF TABLES

Source:
The Political Economy of Hunger: Volume 3: Endemic Hunger
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

  1. 1.1. Arable land per capita, mid‐1970s: international comparison 16

  2. 1.2. Relation between land, population, and labour force, China, 1952–1987 17

  3. 1.3. Irrigated area, China, 1952–1987 18

  4. 1.4. Aggregate and per capita foodgrain production, China, 1952–1985 22

  5. 1.5. Daily per capita availability of energy, protein, and fat, China, 1952–1982 24

  6. 1.6. Per capita consumption, various foods, selected years, China, 1952–1984 27

  7. 1.7. Average annual growth rate of per capita consumption, various foods, selected years, China, 1952–1984 27

  8. 1.8. Demographic crisis and state procurement of foodgrains, China, 1955–1965 29

  9. 1.9. Annual per capita grain supply and daily food energy, China 1957–1964 30

  10. 1.10. Terms of trade between agriculture and industry, China, 1930–1936 to 1979 35

  11. 1.11. Terms of trade between rice and selected industrial goods, Guangzhou and Hong Kong, mid‐1970s 36

  12. 1.12. Foodgrain procurement (unprocessed grain), China, 1952–1984 40

  13. 1.13. Walker's estimates of provincial rural per capita net grain production and consumption in China 41

  14. 1.14. Per capita food supply by province, China, 1979 and 1984 42

  15. 1.15. Foodgrain imports and exports, China, 1952–1984 44

  16. 1.16. Grain rations, Chengdu, 1982 50

  17. 2.1. Selected statistics for the health sector in Sri Lanka, 1926–1984 62

  18. 2.2. Population, crude birth and death rates, infant mortality rate, and life expectancy, Sri Lanka, 1900–1984 66

  19. 2.3. Real GDP per capita and real public expenditure per capita on social services, Sri Lanka, 1950/1–1982 68

  20. 2.4. Social expenditure as a percentage of GNP, Sri Lanka, 1950/1–1982 69

  21. (p.xx) 2.5. Average annual rate of change in infant mortality rate, death rate, and birth rate, Sri Lanka, 1952–1981 70

  22. 2.6. Number of schools, teachers, and pupils, Sri Lanka, 1926–1984 72

  23. 2.7. Literacy rate for population over 10 years of age, Sri Lanka, 1901–1981 73

  24. 2.8. Rice ration distribution, Sri Lanka, 1950–1966 75

  25. 2.9. Rice ration distribution, Sri Lanka, 1966–1978 76

  26. 2.10. Time‐series estimates of living standard regression equations, Sri Lanka 87

  27. 3.1. Brazil: cultivated area, 1950–1980 101

  28. 3.2. Estimates of households and families in a situation of poverty, Brazil, 1970 and 1980 105

  29. 3.3. Economically active population, Brazil and regions, 1984: relative share of the three lowest earning strata 105

  30. 3.4. Income distribution (economically active population), Brazil, 1960–1980 106

  31. 3.5. Estimates of dietary deficiency in Brazil, 1975 109

  32. 3.6. Nutritional status of children to the age of 17, by region, Brazil, 1975 110

  33. 3.7. Life expectancy, Brazil, 1970 and 1977 112

  34. 3.8. Housing conditions, Brazil, 1978 113

  35. 3.9. School attendance, Brazil, 1980 114

  36. 3.10. Levels of education and of income, Brazil, 1983 114

  37. 4.1. Estimates of the incidence of poverty in Latin America around 1970 121

  38. 4.2. Poverty and food poverty lines: annual per capita budgets, Latin America 123

  39. 4.3. Purchasing power parity: poverty lines of individuals in poverty, Latin America, 1975 123

  40. 4.4. Estimates of households below the food poverty and overall poverty lines in Central America, 1980 124

  41. 4.5. Distributions of population by food expenditure relative to cost of minimum diet for ten cities in Latin America 126

  42. 4.6. Different degrees of malnourishment in children, Brazil, 1975 128

  43. 4.7. Malnutrition in children under 5, Latin America and the Caribbean 129

  44. (p.xxi) 4.8. Incidence of acute malnourishment among children aged 12–23 months, based on weight for height comparisons, Latin America and the Caribbean, 1980 130

  45. 4.9. Infant mortality rates and child death rates (age 1–4), Latin America, 1965–1984 131

  46. 4.10. Nutritional deficiency and immaturity associated with death among children under 5, selected areas in Latin America and the Caribbean 132

  47. 4.11. Age, anthropometric measurements, and physical working capacity of two samples of agricultural workers and well‐nourished men in Guatemala 133

  48. 4.12. Anthropometric comparisons: men and women, Brazil 134

  49. 4.13. Percentage of families in absolute poverty (food expenditure less than norm) by city and occupation of family head, Latin America 136

  50. 4.14. Incidence of malnutrition in Bogotá and Cali by family size, 1978, for two requirement levels 137

  51. 4.15. Percentage of children less than 5 years of age below standard height, by father's occupation, Guatemala, 1980 138

  52. 4.16. Malnutrition by functional groups, Costa Rica 139

  53. 4.17. Nutritional status of children 6–59 months (Gomez classification) for four occupational groups, El Salvador, 1976 140

  54. 4.18. Regional distribution of poor, Brazil, 1984 142

  55. 4.19. Incidence of malnutrition among children below the age of 18 in Brazil, by severity and region 143

  56. 4.20. Malnutrition incidence in Mexico, by region 143

  57. 4.21. Calculations of crossover times, Latin America 144

  58. 4.22. Deficits exceeding 400 calories by region, Brazil, 1975 146

  59. 4.23. Projected deficits exceeding 400 calories by region in the year 2000, Brazil 147

  60. 5.1. Estimated per capita calorie availability and requirement, by selected countries and regions 158

  61. 5.2. Prevalence of undernourished people in developing countries, by major regions, as estimated by the IBRD and the FAO 162

  62. 5.3. Average height and weight of adults in selected African populations 165

  63. (p.xxii) 5.4. Percentage share of undernourished children according to selected anthropometric indicators, Africa, 1973–1984 166

  64. 5.5. Estimated calorie savings possible for an adult male 190

  65. 6.1. Federal government budgetary allocations to agriculture and irrigation, Nigeria, 1973–1983 201

  66. 6.2. The distribution of LGA, state, and federal roads, by states, Nigeria, 1978/9–1980 204

  67. 6.3. The distribution of road densities, by states, Nigeria, 1978/9–1980 205

  68. 6.4. Calculated indices of instability of research staff, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, 1955/6–1977/8 208

  69. 6.5. Government and private sector involvement in farm input distribution, sub‐Saharan Africa, 1981 212

  70. 6.6. Frequent changes in institutional arrangements for managing agricultural research in Nigeria, 1964–1985 214

  71. 6.7. Agricultural parastatals in Tanzania, 1983 216

  72. 6.8. Input‐output relationships on large‐ and small‐scale farms, Zimbabwe, 1974–1980 222

  73. 7.1. Profile of poverty in Kenya, 1974/5 238

  74. 7.2. Land area, population, and population density in 1969 and 1979 and smallholder population, mean expenditure, and mean income in 1974/5, in different provinces, Kenya 244

  75. 7.3. Percentages of households landless in different provinces, Kenya, 1976/7, 1977/8, 1978/9 245

  76. 7.4. 1979 province of enumeration by province of origin, Kenya 246

  77. 7.5. Sources of income per smallholder household in different provinces, Kenya, 1974/5 247

  78. 7.6. Composition of sales of agricultural output per household in different provinces, Kenya, 1974/5 248

  79. 7.7. Expenditure per household on purchased inputs and wage labour in different provinces, Kenya, 1974/5 249

  80. 7.8. Percentage of smallholdings engaged in different types of non‐agricultural activity in different provinces, Kenya, 1976/7 252

  81. 7.9. Percentage of smallholders growing selected crops in different provinces, Kenya, 1974/5 253

  82. 7.10. Selected statistics on government expenditure and services in different provinces, Kenya 255

  83. 7.11. Incidence of poverty and food poverty among smallholders in different provinces, Kenya, 1974/5 261

  84. (p.xxiii) 7.12. Children aged 1–4 less than 90% height for age, smallholder agricultural areas in different provinces, Kenya, 1977, 1978/9, 1982 261

  85. 7.13. Estimates of child survival, life expectancy, and child mortality in different provinces, Kenya, 1969 and 1979 262

  86. 7.14. Summary of provincial rankings on some food‐related poverty and deprivation indicators in Kenya 267

  87. 7.15. Own consumption, food consumption, and total consumption per smallholding in different provinces, Kenya, 1974/5 272

  88. 7.16. Composition of agricultural output by agroecological zone, Kenya, 1974/5 273

  89. 8.1. Growth in agricultural production, 1961–1980 283

  90. 8.2. The share of gross fixed investment allocated to agriculture 286

  91. 8.3. Africa's imports of agricultural machinery, 1973–1979 294

  92. 9.1. Distribution of hunger by occupation in rural Bangladesh, 1981 308

  93. 9.2. Foodgrains and calorie intake by socio‐economic class, Bangladesh, 1976/7 309

  94. 9.3. Comparative rates of growth of cereal production and population, Bangladesh 312

  95. 9.4. Production and availability of cereals in Bangladesh 312

  96. 9.5. Shares of different farm‐size groups in the consumption of modern inputs, Bangladesh, 1981/2 318

  97. 9.6. Changes in the distribution of landholdings, Bangladesh, 1960–1982 322

  98. 9.7. Transition towards impoverishment through generations in rural Bangladesh 322

  99. 9.8. Rice exchange rate of agricultural wages in Bangladesh, 1969/70–1982/3 324

  100. 10.1. Intercountry social statistics, c. 1983 349

  101. 10.2. Mortality and the education of women in India, 1978 352

  102. 10.3. Inter‐state social statistics in India, 1978 354