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The Responsibility of States for International Crimes$
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Nina H. B. Jørgensen

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198298618

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198298618.001.0001

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The Concept of Criminal Organizations

The Concept of Criminal Organizations

(p.58) (p.59) 3 The Concept of Criminal Organizations
The Responsibility of States for International Crimes

Nina H. B. Jørgensen

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses the origins of the concept of criminal organizations and highlights the Nuremberg Charter and Tribunal. It was left to the Nuremberg Charter and Tribunal to establish a logically consistent and just theory of criminal organizations on the basis of the recommendations of the Commission. The Nuremberg Charter is the main source of international law on criminal organizations. The Nuremberg Tribunal was empowered to declare that indicted group or organization was criminal, which meant that in subsequent proceedings the criminal nature of the group or organization could not be challenged, and on this basis, an individual could be prosecuted for the crime of the ‘membership’ therein.

Keywords:   criminal organizations, Nuremberg Charter, international law, Nuremberg Tribunal, criminal group

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